Monthly Archives: February 2015

#TDIWH—February 28, 1895: Los Angeles Sewer System

0228 LA Sewer system aFebruary 28, 1895: Engineering News article. The Sewerage System of Los Angeles, Cal. by Burr Bassell. “The City of Los Angeles is built upon both sides of a torrential stream, called the Los Angeles River, at a point 20 miles from its mouth. The corporate limits of the city may be described as a square, more than five miles on a side, containing 18,597 acres….

The present river channel is dependent upon artificial means for the confinement of its waters. Its bed is 30 ft. higher at the point where it leaves the south charter boundary, than at the southwest corner of the city. This change of channel is probably due to the influence of a tributary, called the Arroyo Seco, which empties its storm-waters laden with sand, gravel and boulders from the mountains on the north into the very center of the city….

The census of 1880 gave a population of 11,183, that of 1890, 50,395. A conservative estimate for 1894 is 70,000.

The first comprehensive plan for sewering the city was prepared in 1887 by Mr. Fred Eaton, M. Am. Soc. C. E., at the time city surveyor. It was designed on the separate system, with an outfall sewer to the sea, via the Centinela Rancho. His estimated cost of the internal system was $533,846, and for an outfall sewer to the ocean by the Centinela route, 11.5 miles in length, $466,154, making a total of $1,000,000.

Mr. Rudolph Hering, M. Am. Soc. C. E., reported favorably on Mr. Eaton’s plans, and stated that the problem of designing a good sewerage system for the city presented no serious difficulties.

Reference: Bassell, Burr, 1895. “The Sewerage System of Los Angeles, Cal.” Engineering News. 33:9(February 28, 1895): 139.

Commentary: This article is remarkable in so many ways. Los Angeles was only 25 square miles and the population was only 70,000! Obviously, the city has grown a bit since the article was written. Incidentally, the article goes on at length to describe other sewering options. The plot plan below represented the preferred option. As near as I can tell, the outfall for this sewer is right about where the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) is now located.

Mr. Fred Eaton went on to play an infamous role in Los Angeles water wars. In 1905, Eaton was a central character in the purchase of the Owens Valley lands that formed the basis for the Los Angeles water supply imported from the Eastern Sierras. Eaton’s actions were conducted under the inappropriate cloak of respectability of the U.S. Reclamation Service which has caused hard feelings in the region for the past 109 years. Rudolph Hering played a role in this project. He has been portrayed many times in this blog including two days ago when we celebrated the anniversary of his birth.

0228 LA Sewer system

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#TDIWH—February 27, 1913: Croton Chlorination Plant

0227 Croton Cl2 plantcFebruary 27, 1913: Engineering News article. Chlorinating Plants, Croton Water Supply. “Synopsis—Operating results of a temporary plant, which treated with hypochlorite of lime more than 100 billion gallons of Croton water for New York City in 1912, are given. A permanent hypochlorite or chlorinating plant, to treat the flow through both the old and the new Croton aqueducts, is described and fully illustrated. Brief descriptions are given of four other chlorination plants in the Croton drainage area: Three to treat the waters of tributaries of the Croton before it reaches the main supply and one to treat another tributary and a part of the sewage of the village of Brewster, N. Y.”

In June, 1910, I. M. de Varona, chief engineer of the Department of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity of the City of New York, made trials of hypochlorite treatment in connection with the Croton water-supply. The results were so satisfactory that its use has been extended until the city now maintains five of these plants: one on the New Aqueduct at Pocantico, treating the entire supply from the Croton, and the other four upon various tributaries of the reservoirs.

The continuous treatment of the flow of the New Croton Aqueduct was commenced in June, 1911, the plant being located at Shaft No. 9, north of Tarrytown, N. Y., known as the Pocantico plant. It consists of a rough frame building which houses two cement-lined cypress tanks, 12 ft. in diameter and 6 ft. in height, and a constant-level feeding tank with adjustable orifice discharging through a manhole into the crown of the aqueduct. Within the aqueduct, there is suspended a wooden grid to secure a proper mixture of the chlorine solution and the flowing water. The operating floor is just above the solution tanks and in it are two screened mixing pits.

In operation, a drum of lime, weighing about 800 lb., is rolled into position over a pit and the contents washed out into the pit by a hose stream under pressure. Enough ‘bleach’ is dissolved to treat the aqueduct flow for 12 hours. The tank is then filled with water and stirred to assure the thorough absorption of the chlorine. Four men operate the plant, two on the clay shift, making solution, and one on each of the night shifts, maintaining a constant, uniform flow of the solution.

0227 Croton Cl2 plantbExperience has shown the desirable amount of chlorine to be between 0.40 and 0.65 p.p.m. (parts per million). The lower amount is used in warm weather and when Croton Lake is near the high water line. The amount is gradually increased as the storage in Croton Lake drops or the temperature of the water approaches freezing. The amount of ‘bleach’ to be used daily is determined from a chart (Fig. 1), which shows that the daily amount of chemical is about 4000 lb. Where so much chemical is used, the chart shows the economy resulting from varying the charge of ‘bleach’ in accordance with the amount of its available chlorine, as determined by laboratory analysis.”

Reference: Coffin, T.D.L. 1913. “Chlorinating Plants, Croton Water Supply.” Engineering News. 69:9(February 27, 1913): 419-21.

Commentary: New York City began testing chloride of lime to disinfect the Croton water supply shortly after the findings of the special master in the second Jersey City trial which has been described at length in The Chlorine Revolution: Water Disinfection and the Fight to Save Lives.

0227 Croton Cl2 planta

#TDIWH—February 26, 1847: Birth of Rudolph Hering

Rudolph Hering

Rudolph Hering

February 26, 1847: Rudolph Hering was born. “Although Dr. Hering was one of the first to recommend mechanical filters for pumping the water supplies at Atlanta, and elsewhere, and was connected with important water supply investigations at New York, Philadelphia, Washington, New Orleans, Columbus, Montreal, Minneapolis and numerous smaller places, his accomplishments were greatest in the field of sewerage and sewage disposal and led to his having been designated years ago as the ‘Dean of Sanitary Engineering” in this country. Recognition of such standing was perhaps first made by President Harrison, who, in 1889, appointed him Chairman of a Commission to prepare a program for sewerage improvements for Washington, D. C.

Dr. Hering was an active worker on the committees of various professional organizations as well as civic movements. His most important work was undoubtedly that for the American Public Health Association in the matter of the collection and disposal of refuse. He gathered statistics as to results of operation and otherwise elucidated practice in this country and Europe. Some twenty-five years ago he gave liberally of his own time and money for gathering information upon this subject, although his activities in the field of water supply and sewerage did not permit him to publish the results of his investigations in the disposal of solid wastes of the municipalities.

Dr. Hering was in partnership with George W. Fuller, M. Am. Soc. C. E., from 1901 to 1911 and with John H. Gregory, M. Am. Soc. C. E., from 1911 to 1915. After the latter date his activities were confined largely to work upon a book on ‘Collection and Disposal of Refuse’ of which he was a joint author with Samuel A. Greeley, M. Am. Soc. C. E….

He received an honorary degree of Doctor of Science from the University of Pennsylvania in 1907, and an honorary degree of Doctor of Engineering from the Polytechnic Institute at Dresden in 1922. He was a member of a large number of engineering societies both in this country and in Europe. He was an honorary member of the New England Water Works Association and of the American Water Works Association and a Past President of the American Public Health Association. He became a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers in 1876, was Director in 1891, 1897 to 1899, and Vice President in 1900 to 1901.”

Reference: “Rudolph Hering.” 1924. Journal AWWA. 11:1(January): 305.

#TDIWH—February 25, 1910: Chlorine Disinfection in Minneapolis

The East Side Pumping Station was built on Hennepin Island in 1885 and efficiently delivered sewage-contaminated drinking water to Minneapolis

The East Side Pumping Station was built on Hennepin Island in 1885 and efficiently delivered sewage-contaminated drinking water to Minneapolis

February 25, 1910: The first use of chlorine as a drinking water disinfectant in Minneapolis, MN. “The water source for Minneapolis, Minnesota, in 1910 was the Mississippi River. At that time, the city had a population of about 380,000, and average daily water use was about 20 mgd. Water was pumped from the river into two rectangular basins with a total capacity of 97 million gallons. Plagued with outbreaks of typhoid fever, the city had considered several treatment options including the installation of slow sand filters. However, none of these plans came to fruition because of the resistance of the electorate and the costs of the projects. On February 25, 1910, a chloride of lime treatment system was put into operation after an alarming increase in typhoid cases and deaths in the city.”

References:

Jensen, J.A. “A 20,000,000-Gal. Hypochlorite Water-Disinfecting Plant at Minneapolis, Minn.” Engineering News. 63:14 (April 7, 1910): 391-2.

McGuire, Michael J. 2013. The Chlorine Revolution: Water Disinfection and the Fight to Save Lives. Denver, CO:American Water Works Association, Chapter 12.

Commentary: The chlorination of the water supply for Minneapolis was part of the explosion of chlorine use after the first use on the Jersey City water supply planned and executed by Dr. John L. Leal in 1908.

#TDIWH—February 24, 1953: Birth of Pat Mulroy; 1815: Death of Robert Fulton

0224 Pat MulroyFebruary 24, 1953: Pat Mulroy was born. Patricia Mulroy is the general manager of the Southern Nevada Water Authority. Her job is to make sure that Las Vegas and the surrounding metropolitan area has enough water, now and in the future. Mulroy is the German-born daughter of an American father and a German mother. She was hired in 1978 when she was working for the University of Las Vegas to work in an administrative job at the Las Vegas Valley Water District. She became general manager of that organization in 1989 and in 1991 she was chosen as the general manage of the newly formed Southern Nevada Water Authority.

Because Las Vegas has one of the lowest priorities of water rights on the Colorado River, her tenure has been marked by some of the most innovative efforts to increase the region’s water supply and revolutionary ideas to conserve water. She has gone way beyond the usual approaches of low flow showerheads and low flush toilets. The Authority’s program to buy back turf grass in people’s yards at a price of up to two dollars a square foot has been called by some as a historic turning point in the war against municipal water over-use in the arid West.

She has been called ruthless, scheming and tough. And those are some of the nice things that people who have gone up against her say about her. She is also scary smart and not afraid to take on the biggest and the baddest opponents to get what she wants. And what she wants is what is best for the Authority and the people served by it. Some people say that she has mellowed over the years and is now approaching the task of squeezing more water out of a drought-stricken Colorado River with a more strategic approach.

“Her preferred strategy now [2010] is to weight it [Colorado River water rights] down with subsequent agreements so numerous that the contract is in effect suffocated. In her words, ‘Put enough agreements on top of it that it becomes meaningless.’ While her style remains blunt and no-nonsense, her grasp of the realpolitik of the Colorado River water users has grown more sure and subtle. She is a deal maker when necessary, looking to expand the possibilities for trading water rights or to provide incentives for others to compromise. She infuriated residents of northeastern Nevada and western Utah by pushing for a 285-mile pipeline to bring groundwater from the Snake Valley to Las Vegas but eventually struck a deal, although resentment remains and Utah is not yet formally on board.” (Barringer 2010)

Pat Mulroy is one of a kind. She has shaken up the good-old-boys network of water resources experts in the Western U.S. and we are all better off because of it.

Reference: Barringer, Felicity. 2010. “Las Vegas’s Worried Water Czar.” New York Times. September 28, 2010.

Commentary: The entire article is my opinion.

1114 Robert FultonFebruary 24, 1815: Robert Fulton dies. Today in Science History. Robert Fulton–Born 14 Nov 1765; died 24 Feb 1815 at age 49. “American inventor, engineer, and artist who brought steamboating from the experimental stage to commercial success. He did not invent the steamboat, which had been built in the early 1700’s, but rather applied his engineering skills to their design. He changed the proportions, arrangements, and velocities of already proposed ideas. In 1807, work was completed on the Clermont, the first steamboat that was truly successful, and the culmination of many years of work. It’s maiden voyage was on 17 Aug from New York City to Albany, a distance of 150 miles completed in 32 hours. A mechanical genius with many talents, he also designed a system of inland waterways, a submarine (Nautilus, 1801), and a steam warship.”

#TDIWH–February 23, 1893: Interstate Quarantine Act Becomes Law

0223 Interstate Quarantine RegulationsFebruary 23, 1893: Interstate Quarantine Act becomes law. “In 1893 Congress passed the Interstate Quarantine Act to reduce the spread of communicable diseases through interstate commerce. The act gave the Department of the Treasury broad powers to establish regulations preventing the spread of disease from one state to another in the following clause (Cumming 1932; Kraut 1994):

‘The Secretary of the Treasury shall, if in his judgment it is necessary and proper, make such additional rules and regulations as are necessary to prevent the introduction of such diseases (communicable) into the United States from foreign countries, or into one State or Territory or the District of Columbia from another State or Territory or the District of Columbia ….’

This clause was not immediately perceived as requiring any regulations relating to drinking water. In fact, methods of bacteriological analysis and water treatment were not sufficiently developed at this time for the establishment of quantitative standards.”

Reference: Fischbeck, Paul S. and R. Scott Farrow eds. Improving Regulation: Cases in Environment, Health and Safety. Washington, DC:Resources for the Future. 2001, p. 52.

Commentary: However, in 1912 the common cup was banned on interstate carriers using this law as the basis for regulation by the Treasury Department. In 1914, the first microbiological drinking water regulations were adopted under the Interstate Quarantine Act that governed the quality of water served aboard interstate carriers (trains, riverboats and Great Lakes steamers).

#TDIWH–February 22, 1913: Wallace and Tiernan and Over 100 years of Chlorination; 1989: Abel Wolman Dies

0222 Old Number OneFebruary 22, 1913: Over 100 Years of chlorination by Wallace & Tiernan. The company’s first gas-feed chlorinator, an experimental apparatus, was installed on a tributary of the Rockaway River at Dover, New Jersey, on February 22, 1913. Wallace & Tiernan was the dominant producer of chlorination equipment in the first decades of the twentieth century. Wallace & Tiernan were first founded in New York City, but shortly thereafter, they moved their administrative and manufacturing operations to Belleville, New Jersey. There were many connections between the early days of Wallace & Tiernan and the Jersey City water supply. William Griffin, superintendent of the Jersey City water department, hired Charles F. Wallace and Martin F. Tiernan to disinfect the polluted stream near Dover that was contaminating the Rockaway River as it flowed into Boonton Reservoir. Two of the expert witness in the Jersey City trials, Charles E. North and Earle B. Phelps, hired the two men in the very beginning of their careers to help install disinfection systems in cities as part of North and Phelps’s consulting practice. Tiernan actually ran the chloride of lime feed system at Boonton Reservoir in the early fall of 1912 when the chemist was on vacation.

References:

Tiernan, Martin F. 1948 . “Controlling the Green Goddess.” Journal AWWA. 40:10 1042-50.

Wallace & Tiernan’s Fiftieth Anniversary. 1963. Brochure prepared for the Fiftieth Anniversary of Wallace & Tiernan, Inc.

0222 Abel WolmanFebruary 22, 1989: Abel Wolman dies. “Abel Wolman (June 10, 1892 – February 22, 1989) was an American inventor, scientist, professor and pioneer of modern sanitary engineering.

Wolman was born, grew up, was educated, lived and died in Baltimore, Maryland. He graduated from the Baltimore City College in 1909, got a B.A. from the Johns Hopkins University in 1913 and then a B.S. in engineering from Hopkins in 1915. From 1914 to 1939, Wolman worked for the Maryland State Department of Health, serving as Chief Engineer from 1922 to 1939. It was during his early years there that he made his most important contribution. Working in cooperation with chemist Linn Enslow, he standardized the methods used to chlorinate Baltimore’s drinking-water supply. His efforts there helped develop the plan for Baltimore’s water supply so thoroughly and effectively that it remains well-provided for growth through the 21st century. His work also benefited water systems in New York, Detroit and Columbus, Ohio. A collection of his writings has been published: Water, Health and Society, Selected Papers. Wolman served as the Chairman of the Advisory Council for planning Israel’s National Water Carrier project (1950-1956).

Wolman taught for many years on the faculty of Johns Hopkins University, where he established the Department of Sanitary Engineering in 1937. He served as the department’s chairman until his official retirement in 1962….

Wolman became Editor of the American Water Works Association’s Journal AWWA in 1919 and was responsible for making it into a monthly publication in 1924. The Association presents the Abel Wolman Award of Excellence each year to recognize those whose careers in the water works industry exemplify vision, creativity, and excellent professional performance characteristic of Wolman’s long and productive career.”

Commentary: It is fitting that the anniversary of the first use of a Wallace & Tiernan chlorinator falls on the anniversary of Abel Wolman’s death. In the early 1920s, he and Linn Enslow modernized the system for determining the needed chlorine dose to provide safe drinking water. Prior to their work, chlorine doses were a matter of much guesswork.