April 2, 1914: Municipal Journal articles. Make Survey of Potomac River. “Washington, D. C.-Public health service officials who are aboard the yacht Bratton making a sanitary survey of the Potomac river and Chesapeake bay have, according to report, taken between 1,500 and 2,000 samples of Potomac water for examination and analysis, and it is stated that it will be several weeks before the results of the survey are completed and ready for publication. In connection with the work being done by the Bratton on the navigable portions of the Potomac H. P. Letton of the public health service is at Hagerstown, Md., and is conducting the work of examining the headwaters of the Potomac to ascertain their sanitary condition and the effect the sewage and wastes from the large tanneries and other industries on the upper river are having on the water coming down past this city. It is stated that one of the objects the service has in making this survey is, if possible, to find some use for the various kinds of refuse from the manufacturing plants and to show how they can be turned into a source of profit instead of being allowed to pollute the Potomac water.”
Demonstrate Filtration Methods By Miniature Plants. “Salem, Mass.-Both the [slow] sand and mechanical methods of filtering water were interestingly demonstrated by Engineer H. M. Pirnie. Two plants in miniature had been constructed which gave Mr. Pirnie an excellent opportunity of showing state and city officials of Salem and Beverly just how each process operates and its relative advantages. The two cities mentioned are soon to use water from the Ipswich River, and the question of efficient filtration has received serious attention.”
Reference: Municipal Journal. 1914. 36:14(April 2, 1914): 476-7.
Commentary: By miniature plants, the author was undoubtedly referring to pilot plant studies of the two filtration technologies. H. M. Pirnie was Malcolm Pirnie who worked for the consulting firm of Hazen and Whipple and ultimately founded the firm known as Malcolm Pirnie, Inc.