January 25, 1921: William T. Sedgwick dies. William Thompson Sedgwick (December 29, 1855, West Hartford – January 25, 1921, Boston) was a key figure in shaping public health in the United States. He completed his college education at the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale University in 1877 and received his PhD from Johns Hopkins University in 1881. He taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) from 1883 until his death in 1921, aged 65, initially as Associate Professor (1884), as tenured Professor (1891) and eventually as head of the department of Biology and Public Health. Also, he was curator of the Lowell Institute from 1897 on.
Sedgwick was the first president of the Society of American Bacteriologists (now American Society for Microbiology) in 1899-1901. He was a mentor to George Warren Fuller and George C. Whipple who would both go on to notable careers in water and wastewater technology.
Reference: “William Thompson Sedgwick.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_T._Sedgwick, retrieved December 27, 2012.
January 25, 1945: CDC Honors 65 Years of Community Water Fluoridation. “Sixty-five years ago, on January 25, 1945, the city of Grand Rapids, Michigan, added fluoride to its municipal water system and community water fluoridation began. Since that day, this simple, safe, and inexpensive public health intervention has contributed to a remarkable decline in tooth decay in the United States, with each generation enjoying better oral health than the previous generation.
After fluoride’s oral health benefits were discovered in the 1930s, the next step was to achieve optimal levels in community water supplies. Four communities had agreed to undertake community studies, but Grand Rapids was the first to begin implementation. After fluoride was added to its water supply, Grand Rapids was compared to “control” communities with no added fluoride, and a detailed assessment of the relationship between fluoridation and tooth decay was performed. The National Academy of Sciences’ National Research Council (NRC) reviewed the results and found a dramatic decline in tooth decay in the Grand Rapids children. On November 29, 1951, the NRC declared water fluoridation safe, effective, and beneficial.”
January 25, 1870: “Gustavus D. Dows, of Boston, MA, received a patent for an “Improvement in Soda-Fountains”; vessel in which carbon dioxide was injected, formed soda-water beverage, delivered drink using internal pressure; modern form of soda fountain; 1858 – made first ornamented soda fountain in the U.S. from white Italian marble with spread eagles perched on the syrup cocks; 1862 – invented a double stream draft arm and cock, for a large or small stream; 1863 – made and sold soda fountains for $225.”
Reference: “Business History.” Website http://www.businesshistory.com/index.php, Accessed November 14, 2012.