February 19, 1914: Engineering News article. “A steel tank 100 ft. diameter and 50 ft. high, with a capacity of 2,938,000 gal., is being built at Youngstown, Ohio, in connection with the water-supply service. The design is shown in Fig. 1. There are ten rings of plate, with double-strap butt joints for the vertical seams. These have ten rows of rivets (staggered) in the first two rings, eight in the third, six up to the eighth ring, four in the ninth and two in the tenth or top ring. There is a 20-in. inlet pipe with lead- and oakum-calked joint in the bottom plate, and a 24-in. overflow pipe of 3/8-in. riveted plate….
The tank is built without a roof, but has around the top a steel balcony with hand-rail. This balcony not only serves as a walk but also acts as a horizontal girder to stiffen the top of the tank.
The riveting is done with a large compression yoke riveter, except that the riveting of the bottom and the balcony is done with air hammers. The yoke riveter is suspended from a stiff-leg derrick, as shown in Fig. 3. The mast of this derrick is pivoted in the center of the tank and each stiff-leg is mounted on a small truck riding on a circular track, so that the boom and derrick frame can revolve through a complete circle. The power plant, air compressor and hoisting engine are located just outside the tank. The estimated weight of the tank complete is approximately 500 tons, and there are about 70,000 field rivets.
Reference: “A Large Steel Water Tank.” 1914. Engineering News 71:8(February 19, 1914):412-3.
Commentary: Note the lead and oakum-caulked joint. Lead would still be used in water works facility construction for many decades after 1914. Also, note that the reservoir did not have a roof. Uncovered finished water reservoirs finally suffered their death blow with the USEPA regulation—Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule. This story interested me because of the yoke riveter (on right center of Fig 3 with man standing on top) and derrick. This technology is long gone (I think), but it is interesting to see how they built reservoirs 99 years ago.