May 1, 1913: Engineering News article. Collapse of a Large Steel Pipe. “A steel pipe, 14 ft. in diameter, connecting two reservoirs of the Balleville Hydroelectric Co., near Fremont, Ohio, recently collapsed, while being filled with water. The views herewith show the nature of the failure and give some idea of the construction and arrangement of the pipe. Examination of the design shows that the pipe was entirely inadequate to withstand the distorting effect of the weight of water contained in the pipe, and that it was bound to fail.
The construction of the pipe is described in Power of Mar. 18, 1913. The pipe. sheet was 5/16 in. thick. The individual rings were 6 ft. 8 1/2 in. long, and over the joints were stiffening rings, each consisting of one 6x4x3/8-in. angle (presumably with 6-in. leg outstanding). These angle rings were spliced at the horizontal diameter by splice plates 15 in. long.
The pipe was supported every 14 ft. along its length by two concrete piers 2×2 ft., spaced 6 ft. apart transversely, capped with steel shoes.
When the pipe was about full, a length of some 600 ft. collapsed in the way the views show, starting at a point 200 or 300 ft. below the headgate. The angle stiffening rings broke at the splice on the horizontal diameter and the outstanding legs buckled at the top of the pipe.”
Reference: “Collapse of a Large Steel Pipe.” 1913. Engineering News article 69:18(May 1, 1914): 909.