December 31, 1914: Municipal Journalarticle—Lake Pollution Increases Typhoid. Washington, D.C.-Pollution of the Great Lakes and tributary rivers is becoming a serious menace to health, according to the annual report of Surgeon General Rupert Blue, of the Public Health Service. He points out that about 16,000,000 passengers are carried each year over the Great Lakes, and that more than 1600 vessels use these waters. ‘It becomes apparent, therefore,’ Dr. Blue declares, ‘that these inland vessels play an important role in the maintenance of the high typhoid fever rate in the United States.’ Dr. Blue says that, although the prevalence of typhoid in this country is being reduced gradually, and that the rate is not more than one-half what it was thirty years ago, it is still higher than for some other advanced countries.”
December 31, 1914: Municipal Journalarticle—Progress of Lowell Filtration Plant. “About 80 men are working all day and part of the night on the new boulevard filtration plant and the contractor hopes to have the job completed before August 1, 1915, the time limit, as the weather has been very good, but there have been a number of delays due to caving in of the sand banks. The filtration plant consists of six coke prefilters, 10 feet in depth and two-fifths of an acre in total area; a settling basin, divided into two unites, with a total capacity of 500,000 gallons; six sand filters, with a total area of one acre; and a filtered water reservoir of 1,000,000 gallons capacity….
At a rate of 75 million gallons per acre per day through the prefilters, and a 10 million gallon rate through the sand filters the areas provided are equal to a 10 million gallon daily output. Allowing for cleaning and for the possible desirability of a lower rate through the coke, the plant is believed to be ample for an average daily supply of 7,500,000 to 8,500,000 gallons…sufficient for the needs of the city until 1935.”
Reference: Municipal Journal. (1914). 37:27(December 31, 1914): 963-4.