Tag Archives: cast iron pipe

July 4, 1961: Revolutionary Pipe Joint Patent; 1832: Letter from Chester Averill about Cholera; 2013: Natural Immunity from Cholera

Fastite Joint

July 4, 1961:  On this date, Patent Number 2,991,092 was issued to Mr. J. W. MacKay of the American Cast Iron Pipe Company in Birmingham, Alabama, for the Fastite push-on-rubber gasket joint for iron pipe.  The Fastite gasket uses a dual-durometer gasket having a stiff rubber ring to hold the gasket in place against insertion loads and a softer, fatter section to provide the leak-free seal.  The push-on gasket soon supplanted the bolted mechanical joint for virtually all underground pipe-to-pipe connections and is part of ANSI/AWWA C111/A21.11, Rubber-Gasket Joints for Ductile-Iron Pressure Pipe and Fittings. In 2014, Mr. MacKay is alive and well at age 104. He was inducted into the state of Alabama Engineering Hall of Fame in 2011.

Source: Maury D. Gaston, American Cast Iron Pipe Company.

July 4, 1832:  Date of letter from Chester Averill (Professor of Chemistry, Union College) to the Mayor of Schenectady, New York during the middle of a cholera epidemic which praised the disinfecting properties of chloride of lime (chlorine). The treatise quoted many learned men of the time who demonstrated that chloride of lime eliminated the spread of contagious diseases by attacking the miasmas associated with them.  The letter also made reference to the destruction of certain “viruses” that may have been responsible for transmission of the diseases. The germ theory of disease would not be espoused by Louis Pasteur for another 30-40 years. However, Averill, like many others in the early 19th century suspected that something other than “bad air” caused disease. What follows is a small extract from his treatise.

“‘Chlorine is by far the most powerful agent hitherto discovered to counteract contagion and all kinds of noxious effluvia and its sanative powers appear equally extraordinary.’ Dr. Sillimaii’s Chem. vol. 2, p. 68.

I have here quoted the opinions of eminently scientific men, at least three of whom are M.D.’s. and all of whom, it may be thought, do not deserve to be styled empyrics. But what weight ought these opinions to have in this discussion? Surely no more than those of any other person even much less eminent, unless they are better substantiated by facts. It was thought advisable, however, to quote them, since they may serve to correct any bias which entirely opposite opinions, proceeding from no higher source, may have occasioned.”

Reference: Averill, Chester. Facts Regarding the Disinfecting Powers of Chlorine:  With an Explanation of the Mode in Which it Operates and with Directions How it Should be Applied for Disinfecting Purposes. Letter to John I. DeGraff, Mayor of Schenectady. Private printing. 1832.

Bathing in the Ganges River

July 4, 2013:  In today’s New York Times (July 4, 2013), there was an extraordinary article that summarized recent research findings on human genetic adaptation to killer cholera. A few quotes give a summary of the findings:  “People living in the Ganges Delta, where cholera is an ancient, endemic and often lethal disease, have adapted genetically to the scourge through variations in about 300 genes, say researchers who have scanned their genomes for the fingerprints of evolution.

The researchers also found unexpected changes in genes that protect against arsenic, suggesting that arsenic exposure in Bangladesh is not just a modern problem associated with deep tube wells but may have ancient roots.

These instances of natural selection probably took place within the last 5,000 to 30,000 years, the researchers say, and show how evolution has continued to mold human populations through the relatively recent past…. People with blood group O are particularly susceptible to cholera, and indeed few Bengalis have blood group O. John Mekalanos, a cholera expert at the Harvard Medical School, said the new finding was one of several that ‘are starting to give a strong impression that the human genome has been dramatically shaped by responses to microorganisms.’”

Reference: Wade, Nicholas. 2013. “Gene Sleuths Find How Some Naturally Resist Cholera.” New York Times. July 4, 2013.

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October 25, 1949: Patent issued on ductile iron pipe; 1848: Lake Cochituate water delivered to Boston; San Antonio Water Company incorporated; 1987: Sewers below Paris.

October 25, 1949:  Patent issued on Ductile Iron pipe. On this day, patent Number 2,485,761 was issued to Mr. K. D. Millis and others of the International Nickel Company, for “Gray Cast Iron having Improved Properties.”  It has since become known as ductile iron.   Gray iron becomes ductile iron through the inoculation of the molten mix with magnesium, changing the graphitic carbon from random flake forms into a more geometrically arrayed and spherical form.  The new matrix provides greater yield strength, ultimate strength, and elongation properties.

Cast iron pipe producers had raced International Nickel to the patent office, but International Nickel got there first.  Cast iron pipe producers soon began the commercial production of ductile iron pipe, which has supplanted cast iron due to its greater strength and toughness. Cast iron and ductile iron pipes form the backbone of America’s drinking water distribution systems.

Source:  Maury D. Gaston, American Cast Iron Pipe Company.

Lake Cochituate Dam

October 25, 1848:  First delivery of water from Lake Cochituate into Boston. “Lake Cochituate was created by the construction of Lake Cochituate Damto provide a reservoir for water supply to the City of Boston, via the 14-mile Cochituate Aqueduct. Lake Cochituate was the first major water supply system built for the city, and replaced the previous usage of Jamaica Pond. Developed from 1848 to 1863, it supplied Boston’s water until 1951, when the larger Wachusett and Quabbin Reservoirs replaced it. The surveys and plans for the project were performed by American civil engineer James Fowle Baldwin (1782–1862), the son of Loammi Baldwin who designed the Middlesex Canal, and younger brother of Loammi Baldwin, Jr. (1780–1838) who authored the earlier studies for a Boston water supply. The dam, located on the lake’s former northwestern outlet, formed the headworks of the water supply system, and is now listed on the National Register of Historic Places.”

October 25, 1882San Antonio (California) Water Company, Mutual Water Company, incorporated;natural waters of area part of ‘The Cucamonga Rancho’, 1839 land grant, portion of original territory granted to San Gabriel Mission; statement of purpose: “Acquiring by appropriation, purchase, or otherwise, water, water rights, water privileges and right of way in the Counties of Los Angeles and San Bernardino and to furnish, lease or sell the same for irrigation, milling, manufacturing and other purposes. To own, hold, construct and maintain canals, ditches and all structures, lands, easements and rights appertaining thereto for the purpose of taking and conveying water as herein mentioned to owners of lots and blocks in the Village of Ontario and to stockholders in this Corporation and none others. To make improvements, borrow money and transact any and all business and things connected with the business of the Corporation and relating thereto”; development of water rights, delivery services initiated as migration of people resulted in development of agriculture, business, residency; 1890s– irrigation by Zanjeros (ditch walkers; derived from Spanish words “zanja”, meaning “deep ditch or irrigation ditch”, and “zanjon”, which means, “ditch rider or overseer”; employees who constructed acequias (canals) to provide controlled, dependable water supply to farmers; gave way to automated systems.

October 25, 1987: New York Times headline–The Worlds Beneath Paris. “The great historian of the Paris sewers was, of course, Victor Hugo, who not only has his hero Jean Valjean escape the authorities through the sewers, carrying the wounded Marius Pontmercy on his back, but who also devotes six chapters of ‘Les Miserables’ to a history of the sewers and their peculiarities and dangers. Paris, Hugo wrote, ‘has another Paris under herself: a Paris of sewers, which has its streets, its crossroads, its squares, its blind alleys, its arteries, and its circulation . . . .’

By the time he wrote these words (the book was published in 1862) the city’s ancient sewer system had been considerably modernized. It has been continuously and ingeniously improved since then so that today a 1,305-mile network of canals – one so extensive that if straightened it would reach to Istanbul – carries off, treats and returns to the Seine the city’s daily discharge within the span of a single day. If in a sunny street you have ever paused to wonder at the primitive-seeming phenomenon of Parisian street-cleaning, the gurgling gutter waters directed this way and that by bundles of rags, down here you learn just how sophisticated waste disposal really is.

The tour begins with the smell, which no amount of cleansing can quite eradicate. But once into the small, well-done Musee des Egouts you quickly forget it. Here in documents, engravings, photos, diagrams and models of machinery is a short course in the evolution of the sewer system from the time when chamberpots were dumped into the streets to the present gravity-flow system whose complex network is shown in a map.”

Commentary:  I have crawled through my share of sanitary sewers and there is no way that any museum will ever help me forget the smell.

July 4, 1961: Revolutionary Pipe Joint Patent; 1832: Letter from Chester Averill about Cholera; 2013: Natural Immunity from Cholera

Fastite Joint

July 4, 1961:  On this date, Patent Number 2,991,092 was issued to Mr. J. W. MacKay of the American Cast Iron Pipe Company in Birmingham, Alabama, for the Fastite push-on-rubber gasket joint for iron pipe.  The Fastite gasket uses a dual-durometer gasket having a stiff rubber ring to hold the gasket in place against insertion loads and a softer, fatter section to provide the leak-free seal.  The push-on gasket soon supplanted the bolted mechanical joint for virtually all underground pipe-to-pipe connections and is part of ANSI/AWWA C111/A21.11, Rubber-Gasket Joints for Ductile-Iron Pressure Pipe and Fittings. In 2014, Mr. MacKay is alive and well at age 104. He was inducted into the state of Alabama Engineering Hall of Fame in 2011.

Source: Maury D. Gaston, American Cast Iron Pipe Company.

Chester Averill

July 4, 1832:  Date of letter from Chester Averill (Professor of Chemistry, Union College) to the Mayor of Schenectady, New York during the middle of a cholera epidemic which praised the disinfecting properties of chloride of lime (chlorine). The treatise quoted many learned men of the time who demonstrated that chloride of lime eliminated the spread of contagious diseases by attacking the miasmas associated with them.  The letter also made reference to the destruction of certain “viruses” that may have been responsible for transmission of the diseases. The germ theory of disease would not be espoused by Louis Pasteur for another 30-40 years. However, Averill, like many others in the early 19th century suspected that something other than “bad air” caused disease. What follows is a small extract from his treatise.

“‘Chlorine is by far the most powerful agent hitherto discovered to counteract contagion and all kinds of noxious effluvia and its sanative powers appear equally extraordinary.’ Dr. Sillimaii’s Chem. vol. 2, p. 68.

I have here quoted the opinions of eminently scientific men, at least three of whom are M.D.’s. and all of whom, it may be thought, do not deserve to be styled empyrics. But what weight ought these opinions to have in this discussion? Surely no more than those of any other person even much less eminent, unless they are better substantiated by facts. It was thought advisable, however, to quote them, since they may serve to correct any bias which entirely opposite opinions, proceeding from no higher source, may have occasioned.”

Reference: Averill, Chester. Facts Regarding the Disinfecting Powers of Chlorine:  With an Explanation of the Mode in Which it Operates and with Directions How it Should be Applied for Disinfecting Purposes. Letter to John I. DeGraff, Mayor of Schenectady. Private printing. 1832.

July 4, 2013:  In today’s New York Times (July 4, 2013), there was an extraordinary article that summarized recent research findings on human genetic adaptation to killer cholera. A few quotes give a summary of the findings:  “People living in the Ganges Delta, where cholera is an ancient, endemic and often lethal disease, have adapted genetically to the scourge through variations in about 300 genes, say researchers who have scanned their genomes for the fingerprints of evolution.

The researchers also found unexpected changes in genes that protect against arsenic, suggesting that arsenic exposure in Bangladesh is not just a modern problem associated with deep tube wells but may have ancient roots.

These instances of natural selection probably took place within the last 5,000 to 30,000 years, the researchers say, and show how evolution has continued to mold human populations through the relatively recent past…. People with blood group O are particularly susceptible to cholera, and indeed few Bengalis have blood group O. John Mekalanos, a cholera expert at the Harvard Medical School, said the new finding was one of several that ‘are starting to give a strong impression that the human genome has been dramatically shaped by responses to microorganisms.’”

Reference: Wade, Nicholas. 2013. “Gene Sleuths Find How Some Naturally Resist Cholera.” New York Times. July 4, 2013.

October 25, 1949: Patent issued on ductile iron pipe; 1848: Lake Cochituate water delivered to Boston; San Antonio Water Company incorporated; 1987: Sewers below Paris.

October 25, 1949:  Patent issued on Ductile Iron pipe. On this day, patent Number 2,485,761 was issued to Mr. K. D. Millis and others of the International Nickel Company, for “Gray Cast Iron having Improved Properties.”  It has since become known as ductile iron.   Gray iron becomes ductile iron through the inoculation of the molten mix with magnesium, changing the graphitic carbon from random flake forms into a more geometrically arrayed and spherical form.  The new matrix provides greater yield strength, ultimate strength, and elongation properties.

Cast iron pipe producers had raced International Nickel to the patent office, but International Nickel got there first.  Cast iron pipe producers soon began the commercial production of ductile iron pipe, which has supplanted cast iron due to its greater strength and toughness. Cast iron and ductile iron pipes form the backbone of America’s drinking water distribution systems.

Source:  Maury D. Gaston, American Cast Iron Pipe Company.

Lake Cochituate Dam

October 25, 1848:  First delivery of water from Lake Cochituate into Boston. “Lake Cochituate was created by the construction of Lake Cochituate Dam to provide a reservoir for water supply to the City of Boston, via the 14-mile Cochituate Aqueduct. Lake Cochituate was the first major water supply system built for the city, and replaced the previous usage of Jamaica Pond. Developed from 1848 to 1863, it supplied Boston’s water until 1951, when the larger Wachusett and Quabbin Reservoirs replaced it. The surveys and plans for the project were performed by American civil engineer James Fowle Baldwin (1782–1862), the son of Loammi Baldwin who designed the Middlesex Canal, and younger brother of Loammi Baldwin, Jr. (1780–1838) who authored the earlier studies for a Boston water supply. The dam, located on the lake’s former northwestern outlet, formed the headworks of the water supply system, and is now listed on the National Register of Historic Places.”

October 25, 1882San Antonio (California) Water Company, Mutual Water Company, incorporated; natural waters of area part of ‘The Cucamonga Rancho’, 1839 land grant, portion of original territory granted to San Gabriel Mission; statement of purpose: “Acquiring by appropriation, purchase, or otherwise, water, water rights, water privileges and right of way in the Counties of Los Angeles and San Bernardino and to furnish, lease or sell the same for irrigation, milling, manufacturing and other purposes. To own, hold, construct and maintain canals, ditches and all structures, lands, easements and rights appertaining thereto for the purpose of taking and conveying water as herein mentioned to owners of lots and blocks in the Village of Ontario and to stockholders in this Corporation and none others. To make improvements, borrow money and transact any and all business and things connected with the business of the Corporation and relating thereto”; development of water rights, delivery services initiated as migration of people resulted in development of agriculture, business, residency; 1890s – irrigation by Zanjeros (ditch walkers; derived from Spanish words “zanja”, meaning “deep ditch or irrigation ditch”, and “zanjon”, which means, “ditch rider or overseer”; employees who constructed acequias (canals) to provide controlled, dependable water supply to farmers; gave way to automated systems.

October 25, 1987: New York Times headline–The Worlds Beneath Paris. “The great historian of the Paris sewers was, of course, Victor Hugo, who not only has his hero Jean Valjean escape the authorities through the sewers, carrying the wounded Marius Pontmercy on his back, but who also devotes six chapters of ‘Les Miserables’ to a history of the sewers and their peculiarities and dangers. Paris, Hugo wrote, ‘has another Paris under herself: a Paris of sewers, which has its streets, its crossroads, its squares, its blind alleys, its arteries, and its circulation . . . .’

By the time he wrote these words (the book was published in 1862) the city’s ancient sewer system had been considerably modernized. It has been continuously and ingeniously improved since then so that today a 1,305-mile network of canals – one so extensive that if straightened it would reach to Istanbul – carries off, treats and returns to the Seine the city’s daily discharge within the span of a single day. If in a sunny street you have ever paused to wonder at the primitive-seeming phenomenon of Parisian street-cleaning, the gurgling gutter waters directed this way and that by bundles of rags, down here you learn just how sophisticated waste disposal really is.

The tour begins with the smell, which no amount of cleansing can quite eradicate. But once into the small, well-done Musee des Egouts you quickly forget it. Here in documents, engravings, photos, diagrams and models of machinery is a short course in the evolution of the sewer system from the time when chamberpots were dumped into the streets to the present gravity-flow system whose complex network is shown in a map.”

Commentary:  I have crawled through my share of sanitary sewers and there is no way that any museum will ever help me forget the smell.

July 4, 1961: Revolutionary Pipe Joint Patent; 1832: Letter from Chester Averill about Cholera; 2013: Natural Immunity from Cholera

Fastite Joint

July 4, 1961: On this date, Patent Number 2,991,092 was issued to Mr. J. W. MacKay of the American Cast Iron Pipe Company in Birmingham, Alabama, for the Fastite push-on-rubber gasket joint for iron pipe. The Fastite gasket uses a dual-durometer gasket having a stiff rubber ring to hold the gasket in place against insertion loads and a softer, fatter section to provide the leak-free seal. The push-on gasket soon supplanted the bolted mechanical joint for virtually all underground pipe-to-pipe connections and is part of ANSI/AWWA C111/A21.11, Rubber-Gasket Joints for Ductile-Iron Pressure Pipe and Fittings. In 2014, Mr. MacKay is alive and well at age 104. He was inducted into the state of Alabama Engineering Hall of Fame in 2011.

Source: Maury D. Gaston, American Cast Iron Pipe Company.

Chester Averill

July 4, 1832: Date of letter from Chester Averill (Professor of Chemistry, Union College) to the Mayor of Schenectady, New York during the middle of a cholera epidemic which praised the disinfecting properties of chloride of lime (chlorine). The treatise quoted many learned men of the time who demonstrated that chloride of lime eliminated the spread of contagious diseases by attacking the miasmas associated with them. The letter also made reference to the destruction of certain “viruses” that may have been responsible for transmission of the diseases. The germ theory of disease would not be espoused by Louis Pasteur for another 30-40 years. However, Averill, like many others in the early 19th century suspected that something other than “bad air” caused disease. What follows is a small extract from his treatise.

“‘Chlorine is by far the most powerful agent hitherto discovered to counteract contagion and all kinds of noxious effluvia and its sanative powers appear equally extraordinary.’ Dr. Sillimaii’s Chem. vol. 2, p. 68.

I have here quoted the opinions of eminently scientific men, at least three of whom are M.D.’s. and all of whom, it may be thought, do not deserve to be styled empyrics. But what weight ought these opinions to have in this discussion? Surely no more than those of any other person even much less eminent, unless they are better substantiated by facts. It was thought advisable, however, to quote them, since they may serve to correct any bias which entirely opposite opinions, proceeding from no higher source, may have occasioned.”

Reference: Averill, Chester. Facts Regarding the Disinfecting Powers of Chlorine: With an Explanation of the Mode in Which it Operates and with Directions How it Should be Applied for Disinfecting Purposes. Letter to John I. DeGraff, Mayor of Schenectady. Private printing. 1832.

July 4, 2013: In today’s New York Times (July 4, 2013), there was an extraordinary article that summarized recent research findings on human genetic adaptation to killer cholera. A few quotes give a summary of the findings: “People living in the Ganges Delta, where cholera is an ancient, endemic and often lethal disease, have adapted genetically to the scourge through variations in about 300 genes, say researchers who have scanned their genomes for the fingerprints of evolution.

The researchers also found unexpected changes in genes that protect against arsenic, suggesting that arsenic exposure in Bangladesh is not just a modern problem associated with deep tube wells but may have ancient roots.

These instances of natural selection probably took place within the last 5,000 to 30,000 years, the researchers say, and show how evolution has continued to mold human populations through the relatively recent past…. People with blood group O are particularly susceptible to cholera, and indeed few Bengalis have blood group O. John Mekalanos, a cholera expert at the Harvard Medical School, said the new finding was one of several that ‘are starting to give a strong impression that the human genome has been dramatically shaped by responses to microorganisms.’”

Reference: Wade, Nicholas. 2013. “Gene Sleuths Find How Some Naturally Resist Cholera.” New York Times. July 4, 2013.

October 25, 1949: Patent issued on ductile iron pipe; 1848: Lake Cochituate water delivered to Boston; San Antonio Water Company incorporated; 1987: Sewers below Paris.

1025 Ductile Iron PipeOctober 25, 1949: Patent issued on Ductile Iron pipe. On this day, patent Number 2,485,761 was issued to Mr. K. D. Millis and others of the International Nickel Company, for “Gray Cast Iron having Improved Properties.” It has since become known as ductile iron.  Gray iron becomes ductile iron through the inoculation of the molten mix with magnesium, changing the graphitic carbon from random flake forms into a more geometrically arrayed and spherical form. The new matrix provides greater yield strength, ultimate strength, and elongation properties.

Cast iron pipe producers had raced International Nickel to the patent office, but International Nickel got there first. Cast iron pipe producers soon began the commercial production of ductile iron pipe, which has supplanted cast iron due to its greater strength and toughness. Cast iron and ductile iron pipes form the backbone of America’s drinking water distribution systems.

Source: Maury D. Gaston, American Cast Iron Pipe Company.

Lake Cochituate Dam

Lake Cochituate Dam

October 25, 1848: First delivery of water from Lake Cochituate into Boston. “Lake Cochituate was created by the construction of Lake Cochituate Dam to provide a reservoir for water supply to the City of Boston, via the 14-mile Cochituate Aqueduct. Lake Cochituate was the first major water supply system built for the city, and replaced the previous usage of Jamaica Pond. Developed from 1848 to 1863, it supplied Boston’s water until 1951, when the larger Wachusett and Quabbin Reservoirs replaced it. The surveys and plans for the project were performed by American civil engineer James Fowle Baldwin (1782–1862), the son of Loammi Baldwin who designed the Middlesex Canal, and younger brother of Loammi Baldwin, Jr. (1780–1838) who authored the earlier studies for a Boston water supply. The dam, located on the lake’s former northwestern outlet, formed the headworks of the water supply system, and is now listed on the National Register of Historic Places.”

1025 San Antonio Water CompanyOctober 25, 1882San Antonio (California) Water Company, Mutual Water Company, incorporated; natural waters of area part of ‘The Cucamonga Rancho’, 1839 land grant, portion of original territory granted to San Gabriel Mission; statement of purpose: “Acquiring by appropriation, purchase, or otherwise, water, water rights, water privileges and right of way in the Counties of Los Angeles and San Bernardino and to furnish, lease or sell the same for irrigation, milling, manufacturing and other purposes. To own, hold, construct and maintain canals, ditches and all structures, lands, easements and rights appertaining thereto for the purpose of taking and conveying water as herein mentioned to owners of lots and blocks in the Village of Ontario and to stockholders in this Corporation and none others. To make improvements, borrow money and transact any and all business and things connected with the business of the Corporation and relating thereto”; development of water rights, delivery services initiated as migration of people resulted in development of agriculture, business, residency; 1890s – irrigation by Zanjeros (ditch walkers; derived from Spanish words “zanja”, meaning “deep ditch or irrigation ditch”, and “zanjon”, which means, “ditch rider or overseer”; employees who constructed acequias (canals) to provide controlled, dependable water supply to farmers; gave way to automated systems.

1025 Paris SewersOctober 25, 1987: New York Times headline–The Worlds Beneath Paris. “The great historian of the Paris sewers was, of course, Victor Hugo, who not only has his hero Jean Valjean escape the authorities through the sewers, carrying the wounded Marius Pontmercy on his back, but who also devotes six chapters of ‘Les Miserables’ to a history of the sewers and their peculiarities and dangers. Paris, Hugo wrote, ‘has another Paris under herself: a Paris of sewers, which has its streets, its crossroads, its squares, its blind alleys, its arteries, and its circulation . . . .’

By the time he wrote these words (the book was published in 1862) the city’s ancient sewer system had been considerably modernized. It has been continuously and ingeniously improved since then so that today a 1,305-mile network of canals – one so extensive that if straightened it would reach to Istanbul – carries off, treats and returns to the Seine the city’s daily discharge within the span of a single day. If in a sunny street you have ever paused to wonder at the primitive-seeming phenomenon of Parisian street-cleaning, the gurgling gutter waters directed this way and that by bundles of rags, down here you learn just how sophisticated waste disposal really is.

The tour begins with the smell, which no amount of cleansing can quite eradicate. But once into the small, well-done Musee des Egouts you quickly forget it. Here in documents, engravings, photos, diagrams and models of machinery is a short course in the evolution of the sewer system from the time when chamberpots were dumped into the streets to the present gravity-flow system whose complex network is shown in a map.”

Commentary:  I have crawled through my share of sanitary sewers and there is no way that any museum will ever help me forget the smell.

July 4, 1961: Revolutionary Pipe Joint Patent; 1832: Letter from Chester Averill about Cholera; 2013: Natural Immunity from Cholera

Fastite Joint

Fastite Joint

July 4, 1961: On this date, Patent Number 2,991,092 was issued to Mr. J. W. MacKay of the American Cast Iron Pipe Company in Birmingham, Alabama, for the Fastite push-on-rubber gasket joint for iron pipe. The Fastite gasket uses a dual-durometer gasket having a stiff rubber ring to hold the gasket in place against insertion loads and a softer, fatter section to provide the leak-free seal. The push-on gasket soon supplanted the bolted mechanical joint for virtually all underground pipe-to-pipe connections and is part of ANSI/AWWA C111/A21.11, Rubber-Gasket Joints for Ductile-Iron Pressure Pipe and Fittings. In 2014, Mr. MacKay is alive and well at age 104. He was inducted into the state of Alabama Engineering Hall of Fame in 2011.

Source: Maury D. Gaston, American Cast Iron Pipe Company.

0704 Court for King CholeraJuly 4, 1832: Date of letter from Chester Averill (Professor of Chemistry, Union College) to the Mayor of Schenectady, New York during the middle of a cholera epidemic which praised the disinfecting properties of chloride of lime (chlorine). The treatise quoted many learned men of the time who demonstrated that chloride of lime eliminated the spread of contagious diseases by attacking the miasmas associated with them. The letter also made reference to the destruction of certain “viruses” that may have been responsible for transmission of the diseases. The germ theory of disease would not be espoused by Louis Pasteur for another 30-40 years. However, Averill, like many others in the early 19th century suspected that something other than “bad air” caused disease. What follows is a small extract from his treatise.

“‘Chlorine is by far the most powerful agent hitherto discovered to counteract contagion and all kinds of noxious effluvia and its sanative powers appear equally extraordinary.’ Dr. Sillimaii’s Chem. vol. 2, p. 68.

I have here quoted the opinions of eminently scientific men, at least three of whom are M.D.’s. and all of whom, it may be thought, do not deserve to be styled empyrics. But what weight ought these opinions to have in this discussion? Surely no more than those of any other person even much less eminent, unless they are better substantiated by facts. It was thought advisable, however, to quote them, since they may serve to correct any bias which entirely opposite opinions, proceeding from no higher source, may have occasioned.”

Reference: Averill, Chester. Facts Regarding the Disinfecting Powers of Chlorine: With an Explanation of the Mode in Which it Operates and with Directions How it Should be Applied for Disinfecting Purposes. Letter to John I. DeGraff, Mayor of Schenectady. Private printing. 1832.

Bathing in the Ganges River

Bathing in the Ganges River

July 4, 2013: In today’s New York Times (July 4, 2013), there was an extraordinary article that summarized recent research findings on human genetic adaptation to killer cholera. A few quotes give a summary of the findings: “People living in the Ganges Delta, where cholera is an ancient, endemic and often lethal disease, have adapted genetically to the scourge through variations in about 300 genes, say researchers who have scanned their genomes for the fingerprints of evolution.

The researchers also found unexpected changes in genes that protect against arsenic, suggesting that arsenic exposure in Bangladesh is not just a modern problem associated with deep tube wells but may have ancient roots.

These instances of natural selection probably took place within the last 5,000 to 30,000 years, the researchers say, and show how evolution has continued to mold human populations through the relatively recent past…. People with blood group O are particularly susceptible to cholera, and indeed few Bengalis have blood group O. John Mekalanos, a cholera expert at the Harvard Medical School, said the new finding was one of several that ‘are starting to give a strong impression that the human genome has been dramatically shaped by responses to microorganisms.’”

Reference: Wade, Nicholas. 2013. “Gene Sleuths Find How Some Naturally Resist Cholera.” New York Times. July 4, 2013.