Tag Archives: Charles V. Chapin

February 5, 1914: Low Typhoid Death Rate in Providence, RI and Sale of Treatment Plant in New Jersey

Charles V. Chapin

February 5, 1914: Municipal Journalarticle. Reduce Death Rate from Typhoid. “Providence, R. I.-The death rate from typhoid fever in Providence in 1913 was 10 per 100,000 in an estimated population of 241,000, the lowest rate for ·the disease ever recorded in this city, according to figures compiled for City Registrar C. V. Chapin. Since 1884 the typhoid death rate here has been reduced from 42.62 to its 1913 mark of 10. The average death rate from the disease for the entire period is 24.10. The best previous record was 11.02, attained in 1911. The 1912 rate was 11.65.”

Commentary:  Charles V. Chapin was one of the leaders of the public health movement in the U.S. and he spent great energy improving the death rates for waterborne illnesses in his city.

February 5, 1914: Municipal Journalarticle. Offers to Sell Plant to New Jersey. “Passaic N. J.-Since the issuance of the State Water Supply Commission’s report, the East Jersey Water Company has accepted the value placed upon its property by the state’s appraisers. Moreover, the property may be acquired without the investment of any cash, for the state can assume the outstanding bonds of the company, amounting to $7,500,000, and give the present owners additional bonds in the sum of $1,300,000 for their equity. These terms were offered, notwithstanding the difference in the inventories of the state’s and company’s appraisers, the East Jersey company estimating the value of their property at $1,171,700 above the commission’s figures. The bonds can be directly assumed by the State Water Supply Commission for the municipalities, and the plan of the commission,  if the property is bought, is to lease the plant to the municipalities for the exact sum of the carrying charges. The acquisition of the company system would mean a water supply of 50,000,000 gallons daily.”

Reference:  Municipal Journal. 1914. 36:6(February 5, 1914): 181.

January 31, 1941: Death of Charles V. Chapin

Charles V. Chapin

January 31, 1941:  Charles V. Chapin dies.“Charles Value Chapin (January 17, 1856 – January 31, 1941 in Providence) was a pioneer in public-health practice, serving as one of the Health Officers for Providence, Rhode Island between 1884 and 1932. He also served as President of the American Public Health Association in 1927. His observations on the nature of the spread of infectious disease were dismissed at first, but eventually gained widespread support. His book, The Sources and Modes of Infection, was frequently read in the United States and Europe. The Providence City Hospital was renamed the Charles V. Chapin Hospital in 1931 to recognize his substantial contributions to improving the sanitary condition of the city of Providence.”

From a draft of The Chlorine Revolution: (McGuire 2013)

In the U.S., Charles V. Chapin was responsible more than any one person for instituting the progressive aspects of the public health movement, but he started his career when miasmas dominated beliefs in disease transmission.  In a paper published in the American Journal of Public Healthin 1909, he recalled his early career and the incredible ideas that were believed at that time.

“The foul emanations from decomposing organic matter were sucked up from cellars by the warm air of the house and carried sickness and death…Air was the chief vehicle of infection, nay, it was infection itself.  The emanations from cellars and untidy cupboards which dealt death and destruction through the house have been referred to, as well as the more specific effluvia which gave rise to yellow fever, consumption, and diphtheria.” (Chapin 1915)

In 1884, the appointment of Charles V. Chapin as Superintendent of Health for the City of Providence, Rhode Island was one of the milestones that can be noted in making boards of health more professional. Much has been written about his career, but it was his assumption of the duties of Superintendent of Health that defined his contribution to public health.  He was trained as a physician but Chapin became instrumental in improving not only medical education but also the education of public health specialists. Chapin is one of the best examples of the new professionals who bridged the period from miasma to germ theory.  He had been trained in the arts of fumigation and cleaning the streets to remove filth.  He was obtaining his medical education just as the age of bacteriology was dawning. He had taken courses in the new bacteriology and had followed the publications of Robert Koch in Germany who had identified the tubercle bacillus and the bacillus comma that caused cholera. In addition, Chapin adopted and used Koch’s new laboratory technique called the plate method to quantify the number of bacteria present in a water supply.

Unlike many health officers who were confused by the seeming conflicts between the worlds of miasmas and germs, Chapin integrated the two and devised a new approach to public health protection. “He was one of a few in America before 1885 who followed the English sanitarian John Simon in pointing out that the danger from filth was not in the stench but in specific disease germs….For many good reasons, the cleansing of the city had to go on.” (Cassedy 1962)

 

Indeed, the story of the advances in public health during the 1890s and early 1900s could be nothing more than a recitation of Chapin’s biography.  That task has already been brilliantly done by James H. Cassedy in his book about Charles V. Chapin. (Cassedy 1962)

“Chapin’s efforts to improve the sanitary environment of his city were valuable to sanitarians across the country.  But he was impatient with much of this work.  He had early realized that cleansing of the physical environment was, by itself, insufficient for improving the public health. Minimizing the broad dogmas of the filth theory from the first, and concentrating on the truly dangerous forms of filth, Chapin progressively deemphasized nuisances that had no direct or demonstrable connection with disease and avoided much of the tedious routine of nuisance abatement….Attuning himself to the age of bacteriology, he turned from general measures against disease to specific measures against particular diseases.”(Cassedy 1962)

Disinfection of households which held victims of infectious diseases was one of the lingering effects of the miasma theory. In 1902, Leal discussed the useful and ridiculous aspects of disinfection of a diseased household after the removal of the infected person.

“Disinfection, then, is the process of destroying such infection by the destruction of the disease germs there existing…Too often, however, it is intrusted (sic) to one whose training possibly has made capable of distinguishing a pile of filth or an unpleasant odor, but who as no true conception of the cause of the disease, how it is possible to destroy it, and the means to be employed.  In such hands it is more a ceremony of incantation than a scientific process.” (emphasis added) (Leal 1902)

Ceremonies of incantation persisted for decades. Chapin lamented in a paper published in 1923 that cities were loath to give up what he called “terminal disinfection” which referred to the disinfection of surfaces or the atmosphere in a dwelling where a person has died from a contagious disease or had recovered from such a disease.  He emphasized that by the time of his writing, everyone was pretty sure that contagious diseases were spread by people (and their emanations) and not things.  Swabbing a house down with formaldehyde, burning sulfur or heating pans of chloride of lime provided impressive special effects, but were of little use to prevent transmission of epidemic diseases. (Chapin 1923)

Yet, cities felt compelled to continue the tradition because it was ingrained in the public psyche and the public expected it. Providence, Rhode Island stopped terminal disinfection for diphtheria cases in 1905 but it was not until 1908 that Chapin was able to stop terminal disinfection for scarlet fever cases.  In 1913, New York City eliminated virtually all terminal disinfection and many other cities followed suit. (Chapin 1923) Part of the resistance to eliminating terminal disinfection was public relations, but a huge part of the problem was that there was a deeply ingrained belief that if someone was sick, they probably infected the air and the bad air had to be cleansed.

The work on mechanical filtration done in Providence, Rhode Island, over the period 1892 to 1894, seldom gets the credit it deserves for marking advances in the science of drinking water filtration. (Swarts 1895) After an epidemic of typhoid in Providence in 1888, Charles V. Chapin began to seriously investigate filtration for use on the City’s water supply. “This Providence experimentation provided the first careful tests anywhere of the mechanical type of water filtration.” (Cassedy 1962) In a paper published by Chapin, bacteria removals were typically 98.7 percent.  Chapin recommended that mechanical filtration be installed on the source of supply for Providence. (Chapin 1895) However, the City Council was not ready for such a new technology.  A slow sand filter was installed instead. (Cassedy 1962)

Commentary:  I knew nothing about Charles V. Chapin when I started writing The Chlorine Revolution. After seeing his name pop up in many contexts dealing with the new public health movement, I read his autobiography. He was an extraordinary individual who did more than most to modernize public health efforts in the U.S.

References:

Cassedy, James H., Charles V. Chapin and the Public Health Movement. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1962.

Chapin, Charles V. 1895. “The Filtration of Water.” The Medical News. 66 (January 5, 1895): 11-4.

Chapin, Charles V. 1915. “Truth in Publicity.” American Journal of Public Health. 5 (June 1915): 493-502, In Papers of Charles V. Chapin, M.D. Clarence L. Scamman ed., New York:Oxford, 1934, 13-9.

Chapin, Charles V. 1923. “Disinfection in American Cities.” TheMedical Officer (London). 30 (November 17, 1923): 232-3, In Papers of Charles V. Chapin, M.D. Clarence L. Scamman ed., New York:Oxford, 1934, 92-5.

Leal, John L. 1902. “Facts vs. Fallacies of Sanitary Science,” Eleventh Biennial Report of the Board of Health of the State of Iowa for the Period Ending June 30, 1901. Des Moines:Iowa, 129-40, from The Christian Advocate. New York, August 21, 1902.

McGuire, Michael J. 2013. The Chlorine Revolution:  Water Disinfection and the Fight to Save Lives. Denver, CO:American Water Works Association.

Swarts, Gardner T. 1895, “Discussion on the Foregoing Group of Papers From ‘The Cart Before the Horse’ to ‘The Report of the Committee on the Pollution of Water Supplies,’ Inclusive.” In American Public Health Association, Public Health Papers and Reports.Vol. 20, Columbus, OH:APHA, 83-4.

Charles V. Chapin

January 17, 1896: Drought Cartoon; 1994: Northridge Earthquake Damages Los Angeles Infrastructure; 1900: Missouri v Illinois over Chicago Sewage; 1856: Charles V. Chapin Born; 1859: Death of Lemuel Shattuck

January 17, 1896:  Drought Cartoon. The Los Angeles Times has published cartoons over more than 100 years that depict the many droughts that California has suffered and the reactions to them. Here is one that I think you will enjoy.

January 17, 1994:  Northridge earthquake does significant damage to water infrastructure in Los Angeles.“The Northridge earthquake was an earthquake that occurred on January 17, 1994, at 04:31 Pacific Standard Time and was centered in the north-central San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles, California. It had a duration of approximately 10–20 seconds….In addition, earthquake-caused property damage was estimated to be more than $20 billion, making it one of the costliest natural disasters in U.S. history….Numerous fires were also caused by broken gas lines from houses shifting off their foundations or unsecured water heaters tumbling. In the San Fernando Valley, several underground gas and water lines were severed, resulting in some streets experiencing simultaneous fires and floods. Damage to the system resulted in water pressure dropping to zero in some areas; this predictably affected success in fighting subsequent fires. Five days after the earthquake it was estimated that between 40,000 and 60,000 customers were still without public water service.”

Commentary:  One of the most memorable sights from the earthquake aftermath was the massive natural gas fire occurring while water was spewing from a huge water main break (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WA1m3UgJ8nU).

Breaking the Dam on the Canal

January 17, 1900:Fifteen days after Chicago opened the Sanitary and Ship Canal and reversed the course of the Chicago River to discharge sewage into the Mississippi River, Missouri sued Illinois, “…praying for an injunction against the defendants from draining into Mississippi River the sewage and drainage of said sanitary district by way of the Chicago drainage canal and the channels of Desplaines and Illinois river.”

The Bill of Complaint alleged in part:

“That if such plan is carried out it will cause such sewage matter to flow into Mississippi River past the homes and waterworks systems of the inhabitants of the complainant…

That the amount of such undefecated [huh?] sewage matter would be about 1,500 tons daily, and that it will poison the waters of the Mississippi and render them unfit for domestic use, amounting to a direct and continuing nuisance that will endanger the health and lives and irreparably injure the business interests of inhabitants of the complainant…

That the water of the canal had destroyed the value of the water of the Mississippi for drinking and domestic purposes, and had caused much sickness to persons living along the banks of said river in the State of Missouri.”

The opinion in the case was written by Supreme Court Justice, Oliver Wendell Holmes and read in part:

“The data upon which an increase in the deaths from typhoid fever in St. Louis is alleged are disputed. The elimination of other causes is denied. The experts differ as to the time and distance within which a stream would purify itself. No case of an epidemic caused by infection at so remote a source is brought forward and the cases which are produced are controverted. The plaintiff obviously must be cautious upon this point, for if this suit should succeed many others would follow, and it not improbably would find itself a defendant to a bill by one or more of the States lower down upon the Mississippi.The distance which the sewage has to travel (357 miles) is not open to debate, but the time of transit to he inferred from experiments with floats is estimated at varying from eight to eighteen and a half days, with forty-eight hours more from intake to distribution, and when corrected by observations of bacteria is greatly prolonged by the defendants. The experiments of the defendants’ experts lead them to the opinion that a typhoid bacillus could not survive the journey, while those on the other side maintain that it might live and keep its power for twenty-five days or more, and arrive at St. Louis. Upon the question at issue, whether the new discharge from Chicago hurts St. Louis, there is a categorical contradiction between the experts on the two sides.”

Commentary:  In effect, Justice Holmes ruled in favor of Chicago. The experts for St. Louis had failed to prove their case.

Reference:  Leighton, Marshall O. 1907. “Pollution of Illinois and Mississippi Rivers by Chicago Sewage: A Digest of the Testimony Taken in the Case of the State of Missouri v. the State of Illinois and the Sanitary District of Chicago.” U.S. Geological Survey, Water Supply and Irrigation Paper No. 194, Series L, Quality of Water, 20, Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Charles V. Chapin

January 17, 1856:  Charles V. Chapin was born.“Charles Value Chapin (January 17, 1856 – January 31, 1941 in Providence) was a pioneer in public-health practice, serving as one of the Health Officers for Providence, Rhode Island between 1884 and 1932. He also served as President of the American Public Health Association in 1927. His observations on the nature of the spread of infectious disease were dismissed at first, but eventually gained widespread support. His book, The Sources and Modes of Infection, was frequently read in the United States and Europe. The Providence City Hospital was renamed the Charles V. Chapin Hospital in 1931 to recognize his substantial contributions to improving the sanitary condition of the city of Providence.”

Commentary:  Chapin defined the new public health movement at the beginning of the 20thcentury. His career expressed the advances in public health that we all now take for granted.

January 17, 1859:  Lemuel Shattuck died in Boston.“Lemuel Shattuck was born on October 15, 1793 in Ashby, Massachusetts… He is remembered as a public health innovator, and for his work with vital statistics. Shattuck was one of the early prime-movers of public hygiene in the United States. With his report to the Massachusetts Sanitary Commission in 1850, he accomplished for New England what such men as Chadwick, Rarr, and Simon had done for England. There had been in the United States few advances in public health aside from a few stray smallpox regulations until this report. Shattuck’s report pointed out that much of the ill health and debility in the American cities at that time could be traced to unsanitary conditions, and stressed the need for local investigations and control of defects.

Shattuck was a prime mover in the adoption and expansion of public health measures at local and state levels. In 1850, he published a Sanitation Report that established a model for state boards of health in Massachusetts (1869) and other parts of the United States….”

February 5, 1914: Low Typhoid Death Rate in Providence, RI and Sale of Treatment Plant in New Jersey

Charles V. Chapin

February 5, 1914: Municipal Journal article. Reduce Death Rate from Typhoid. “Providence, R. I.-The death rate from typhoid fever in Providence in 1913 was 10 per 100,000 in an estimated population of 241,000, the lowest rate for ·the disease ever recorded in this city, according to figures compiled for City Registrar C. V. Chapin. Since 1884 the typhoid death rate here has been reduced from 42.62 to its 1913 mark of 10. The average death rate from the disease for the entire period is 24.10. The best previous record was 11.02, attained in 1911. The 1912 rate was 11.65.”

Commentary:  Charles V. Chapin was one of the leaders of the public health movement in the U.S. and he spent great energy improving the death rates for waterborne illnesses in his city.

About 1925. The old Morris Canal being destroyed at Little Falls, showing the treatment plant in the background

February 5, 1914: Municipal Journal article. Offers to Sell Plant to New Jersey. “Passaic N. J.-Since the issuance of the State Water Supply Commission’s report, the East Jersey Water Company has accepted the value placed upon its property by the state’s appraisers. Moreover, the property may be acquired without the investment of any cash, for the state can assume the outstanding bonds of the company, amounting to $7,500,000, and give the present owners additional bonds in the sum of $1,300,000 for their equity. These terms were offered, notwithstanding the difference in the inventories of the state’s and company’s appraisers, the East Jersey company estimating the value of their property at $1,171,700 above the commission’s figures. The bonds can be directly assumed by the State Water Supply Commission for the municipalities, and the plan of the commission,  if the property is bought, is to lease the plant to the municipalities for the exact sum of the carrying charges. The acquisition of the company system would mean a water supply of 50,000,000 gallons daily.”

Reference:  Municipal Journal. 1914. 36:6(February 5, 1914): 181.

#TDIWH-January 31, 1941: Death of Charles V. Chapin

Charles V. Chapin

January 31, 1941:  Charles V. Chapin dies. “Charles Value Chapin (January 17, 1856 – January 31, 1941 in Providence) was a pioneer in public-health practice, serving as one of the Health Officers for Providence, Rhode Island between 1884 and 1932. He also served as President of the American Public Health Association in 1927. His observations on the nature of the spread of infectious disease were dismissed at first, but eventually gained widespread support. His book, The Sources and Modes of Infection, was frequently read in the United States and Europe. The Providence City Hospital was renamed the Charles V. Chapin Hospital in 1931 to recognize his substantial contributions to improving the sanitary condition of the city of Providence.”

From a draft of The Chlorine Revolution: (McGuire 2013)

In the U.S., Charles V. Chapin was responsible more than any one person for instituting the progressive aspects of the public health movement, but he started his career when miasmas dominated beliefs in disease transmission.  In a paper published in the American Journal of Public Health in 1909, he recalled his early career and the incredible ideas that were believed at that time.

“The foul emanations from decomposing organic matter were sucked up from cellars by the warm air of the house and carried sickness and death…Air was the chief vehicle of infection, nay, it was infection itself.  The emanations from cellars and untidy cupboards which dealt death and destruction through the house have been referred to, as well as the more specific effluvia which gave rise to yellow fever, consumption, and diphtheria.” (Chapin 1915)

In 1884, the appointment of Charles V. Chapin as Superintendent of Health for the City of Providence, Rhode Island was one of the milestones that can be noted in making boards of health more professional.  Much has been written about his career, but it was his assumption of the duties of Superintendent of Health that defined his contribution to public health.  He was trained as a physician but Chapin became instrumental in improving not only medical education but also the education of public health specialists. Chapin is one of the best examples of the new professionals who bridged the period from miasma to germ theory.  He had been trained in the arts of fumigation and cleaning the streets to remove filth.  He was obtaining his medical education just as the age of bacteriology was dawning.  He had taken courses in the new bacteriology and had followed the publications of Robert Koch in Germany who had identified the tubercle bacillus and the bacillus comma that caused cholera.  In addition, Chapin adopted and used Koch’s new laboratory technique called the plate method to quantify the number of bacteria present in a water supply.

Unlike many health officers who were confused by the seeming conflicts between the worlds of miasmas and germs, Chapin integrated the two and devised a new approach to public health protection.  “He was one of a few in America before 1885 who followed the English sanitarian John Simon in pointing out that the danger from filth was not in the stench but in specific disease germs….For many good reasons, the cleansing of the city had to go on.” (Cassedy 1962)

 

Indeed, the story of the advances in public health during the 1890s and early 1900s could be nothing more than a recitation of Chapin’s biography.  That task has already been brilliantly done by James H. Cassedy in his book about Charles V. Chapin. (Cassedy 1962)

“Chapin’s efforts to improve the sanitary environment of his city were valuable to sanitarians across the country.  But he was impatient with much of this work.  He had early realized that cleansing of the physical environment was, by itself, insufficient for improving the public health.  Minimizing the broad dogmas of the filth theory from the first, and concentrating on the truly dangerous forms of filth, Chapin progressively deemphasized nuisances that had no direct or demonstrable connection with disease and avoided much of the tedious routine of nuisance abatement….Attuning himself to the age of bacteriology, he turned from general measures against disease to specific measures against particular diseases.”(Cassedy 1962)

Disinfection of households which held victims of infectious diseases was one of the lingering effects of the miasma theory.  In 1902, Leal discussed the useful and ridiculous aspects of disinfection of a diseased household after the removal of the infected person.

“Disinfection, then, is the process of destroying such infection by the destruction of the disease germs there existing…Too often, however, it is intrusted (sic) to one whose training possibly has made capable of distinguishing a pile of filth or an unpleasant odor, but who as no true conception of the cause of the disease, how it is possible to destroy it, and the means to be employed.  In such hands it is more a ceremony of incantation than a scientific process.” (emphasis added) (Leal 1902)

Ceremonies of incantation persisted for decades. Chapin lamented in a paper published in 1923 that cities were loath to give up what he called “terminal disinfection” which referred to the disinfection of surfaces or the atmosphere in a dwelling where a person has died from a contagious disease or had recovered from such a disease.  He emphasized that by the time of his writing, everyone was pretty sure that contagious diseases were spread by people (and their emanations) and not things.  Swabbing a house down with formaldehyde, burning sulfur or heating pans of chloride of lime provided impressive special effects, but were of little use to prevent transmission of epidemic diseases. (Chapin 1923)

Yet, cities felt compelled to continue the tradition because it was ingrained in the public psyche and the public expected it.  Providence, Rhode Island stopped terminal disinfection for diphtheria cases in 1905 but it was not until 1908 that Chapin was able to stop terminal disinfection for scarlet fever cases.  In 1913, New York City eliminated virtually all terminal disinfection and many other cities followed suit. (Chapin 1923) Part of the resistance to eliminating terminal disinfection was public relations, but a huge part of the problem was that there was a deeply ingrained belief that if someone was sick, they probably infected the air and the bad air had to be cleansed.

The work on mechanical filtration done in Providence, Rhode Island, over the period 1892 to 1894, seldom gets the credit it deserves for marking advances in the science of drinking water filtration. (Swarts 1895) After an epidemic of typhoid in Providence in 1888, Charles V. Chapin began to seriously investigate filtration for use on the City’s water supply.  “This Providence experimentation provided the first careful tests anywhere of the mechanical type of water filtration.” (Cassedy 1962) In a paper published by Chapin, bacteria removals were typically 98.7 percent.  Chapin recommended that mechanical filtration be installed on the source of supply for Providence. (Chapin 1895) However, the City Council was not ready for such a new technology.  A slow sand filter was installed instead. (Cassedy 1962)

Commentary:  I knew nothing about Charles V. Chapin when I started writing The Chlorine Revolution. After seeing his name pop up in many contexts dealing with the new public health movement, I read his autobiography. He was an extraordinary individual who did more than most to modernize public health efforts in the U.S.

References:

Cassedy, James H., Charles V. Chapin and the Public Health Movement. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1962.

Chapin, Charles V. 1895. “The Filtration of Water.” The Medical News. 66 (January 5, 1895): 11-4.

Chapin, Charles V. 1915. “Truth in Publicity.” American Journal of Public Health. 5 (June 1915): 493-502, In Papers of Charles V. Chapin, M.D. Clarence L. Scamman ed., New York:Oxford, 1934, 13-9.

Chapin, Charles V. 1923. “Disinfection in American Cities.” The Medical Officer (London). 30 (November 17, 1923): 232-3, In Papers of Charles V. Chapin, M.D. Clarence L. Scamman ed., New York:Oxford, 1934, 92-5.

Leal, John L. 1902. “Facts vs. Fallacies of Sanitary Science,” Eleventh Biennial Report of the Board of Health of the State of Iowa for the Period Ending June 30, 1901. Des Moines:Iowa, 129-40, from The Christian Advocate. New York, August 21, 1902.

McGuire, Michael J. 2013. The Chlorine Revolution:  Water Disinfection and the Fight to Save Lives. Denver, CO:American Water Works Association.

Swarts, Gardner T. 1895, “Discussion on the Foregoing Group of Papers From ‘The Cart Before the Horse’ to ‘The Report of the Committee on the Pollution of Water Supplies,’ Inclusive.” In American Public Health Association, Public Health Papers and Reports. Vol. 20, Columbus, OH:APHA, 83-4.

#TDIWH—January 17, 1896: Drought Cartoon; 1994: Northridge Earthquake Damages Los Angeles Infrastructure; 1900: Missouri v Illinois over Chicago Sewage; 1856: Charles V. Chapin Born; 1859: Death of Lemuel Shattuck

January 17, 1896:  Drought Cartoon. The Los Angeles Times has published cartoons over more than 100 years that depict the many droughts that California has suffered and the reactions to them. Here is one that I think you will enjoy.

January 17, 1994:  Northridge earthquake does significant damage to water infrastructure in Los Angeles. “The Northridge earthquake was an earthquake that occurred on January 17, 1994, at 04:31 Pacific Standard Time and was centered in the north-central San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles, California. It had a duration of approximately 10–20 seconds….In addition, earthquake-caused property damage was estimated to be more than $20 billion, making it one of the costliest natural disasters in U.S. history….Numerous fires were also caused by broken gas lines from houses shifting off their foundations or unsecured water heaters tumbling. In the San Fernando Valley, several underground gas and water lines were severed, resulting in some streets experiencing simultaneous fires and floods. Damage to the system resulted in water pressure dropping to zero in some areas; this predictably affected success in fighting subsequent fires. Five days after the earthquake it was estimated that between 40,000 and 60,000 customers were still without public water service.”

Commentary:  One of the most memorable sights from the earthquake aftermath was the massive natural gas fire occurring while water was spewing from a huge water main break (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WA1m3UgJ8nU).

Breaking the Dam on the Canal

January 17, 1900: Fifteen days after Chicago opened the Sanitary and Ship Canal and reversed the course of the Chicago River to discharge sewage into the Mississippi River, Missouri sued Illinois, “…praying for an injunction against the defendants from draining into Mississippi River the sewage and drainage of said sanitary district by way of the Chicago drainage canal and the channels of Desplaines and Illinois river.”

The Bill of Complaint alleged in part:

“That if such plan is carried out it will cause such sewage matter to flow into Mississippi River past the homes and waterworks systems of the inhabitants of the complainant…

That the amount of such undefecated [huh?] sewage matter would be about 1,500 tons daily, and that it will poison the waters of the Mississippi and render them unfit for domestic use, amounting to a direct and continuing nuisance that will endanger the health and lives and irreparably injure the business interests of inhabitants of the complainant…

That the water of the canal had destroyed the value of the water of the Mississippi for drinking and domestic purposes, and had caused much sickness to persons living along the banks of said river in the State of Missouri.”

The opinion in the case was written by Supreme Court Justice, Oliver Wendell Holmes and read in part:

“The data upon which an increase in the deaths from typhoid fever in St. Louis is alleged are disputed. The elimination of other causes is denied. The experts differ as to the time and distance within which a stream would purify itself. No case of an epidemic caused by infection at so remote a source is brought forward and the cases which are produced are controverted. The plaintiff obviously must be cautious upon this point, for if this suit should succeed many others would follow, and it not improbably would find itself a defendant to a bill by one or more of the States lower down upon the Mississippi. The distance which the sewage has to travel (357 miles) is not open to debate, but the time of transit to he inferred from experiments with floats is estimated at varying from eight to eighteen and a half days, with forty-eight hours more from intake to distribution, and when corrected by observations of bacteria is greatly prolonged by the defendants. The experiments of the defendants’ experts lead them to the opinion that a typhoid bacillus could not survive the journey, while those on the other side maintain that it might live and keep its power for twenty-five days or more, and arrive at St. Louis. Upon the question at issue, whether the new discharge from Chicago hurts St. Louis, there is a categorical contradiction between the experts on the two sides.”

Commentary:  In effect, Justice Holmes ruled in favor of Chicago. The experts for St. Louis had failed to prove their case.

Reference:  Leighton, Marshall O. 1907. “Pollution of Illinois and Mississippi Rivers by Chicago Sewage: A Digest of the Testimony Taken in the Case of the State of Missouri v. the State of Illinois and the Sanitary District of Chicago.” U.S. Geological Survey, Water Supply and Irrigation Paper No. 194, Series L, Quality of Water, 20, Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Charles V. Chapin

January 17, 1856:  Charles V. Chapin was born. “Charles Value Chapin (January 17, 1856 – January 31, 1941 in Providence) was a pioneer in public-health practice, serving as one of the Health Officers for Providence, Rhode Island between 1884 and 1932. He also served as President of the American Public Health Association in 1927. His observations on the nature of the spread of infectious disease were dismissed at first, but eventually gained widespread support. His book, The Sources and Modes of Infection, was frequently read in the United States and Europe. The Providence City Hospital was renamed the Charles V. Chapin Hospital in 1931 to recognize his substantial contributions to improving the sanitary condition of the city of Providence.”

Commentary:  Chapin defined the new public health movement at the beginning of the 20th century. His career expressed the advances in public health that we all now take for granted.

January 17, 1859:  Lemuel Shattuck died in Boston. “Lemuel Shattuck was born on October 15, 1793 in Ashby, Massachusetts… He is remembered as a public health innovator, and for his work with vital statistics. Shattuck was one of the early prime-movers of public hygiene in the United States. With his report to the Massachusetts Sanitary Commission in 1850, he accomplished for New England what such men as Chadwick, Rarr, and Simon had done for England. There had been in the United States few advances in public health aside from a few stray smallpox regulations until this report. Shattuck’s report pointed out that much of the ill health and debility in the American cities at that time could be traced to unsanitary conditions, and stressed the need for local investigations and control of defects.

Shattuck was a prime mover in the adoption and expansion of public health measures at local and state levels. In 1850, he published a Sanitation Report that established a model for state boards of health in Massachusetts (1869) and other parts of the United States….”

#TDIWH—February 5, 1914: Low Typhoid Death Rate in Providence, RI and Sale of Treatment Plant in New Jersey

Charles V. Chapin

Charles V. Chapin

February 5, 1914: Municipal Journal article. Reduce Death Rate from Typhoid. “Providence, R. I.-The death rate from typhoid fever in Providence in 1913 was 10 per 100,000 in an estimated population of 241,000, the lowest rate for ·the disease ever recorded in this city, according to figures compiled for City Registrar C. V. Chapin. Since 1884 the typhoid death rate here has been reduced from 42.62 to its 1913 mark of 10. The average death rate from the disease for the entire period is 24.10. The best previous record was 11.02, attained in 1911. The 1912 rate was 11.65.”

Commentary: Charles V. Chapin was one of the leaders of the public health movement in the U.S. and he spent great energy improving the death rates for waterborne illnesses in his city.

0205 pvwcFebruary 5, 1914: Municipal Journal article. Offers to Sell Plant to New Jersey. “Passaic N. J.-Since the issuance of the State Water Supply Commission’s report, the East Jersey Water Company has accepted the value placed upon its property by the state’s appraisers. Moreover, the property may be acquired without the investment of any cash, for the state can assume the outstanding bonds of the company, amounting to $7,500,000, and give the present owners additional bonds in the sum of $1,300,000 for their equity. These terms were offered, notwithstanding the difference in the inventories of the state’s and company’s appraisers, the East Jersey company estimating the value of their property at $1,171,700 above the commission’s figures. The bonds can be directly assumed by the State Water Supply Commission for the municipalities, and the plan of the commission, if the property is bought, is to lease the plant to the municipalities for the exact sum of the carrying charges. The acquisition of the company system would mean a water supply of 50,000,000 gallons daily.”

Reference: Municipal Journal. 1914. 36:6(February 5, 1914): 181.