Tag Archives: Chester Averill

July 4, 1961: Revolutionary Pipe Joint Patent; 1832: Letter from Chester Averill about Cholera; 2013: Natural Immunity from Cholera

Fastite Joint

July 4, 1961: On this date, Patent Number 2,991,092 was issued to Mr. J. W. MacKay of the American Cast Iron Pipe Company in Birmingham, Alabama, for the Fastite push-on-rubber gasket joint for iron pipe. The Fastite gasket uses a dual-durometer gasket having a stiff rubber ring to hold the gasket in place against insertion loads and a softer, fatter section to provide the leak-free seal. The push-on gasket soon supplanted the bolted mechanical joint for virtually all underground pipe-to-pipe connections and is part of ANSI/AWWA C111/A21.11, Rubber-Gasket Joints for Ductile-Iron Pressure Pipe and Fittings. In 2014, Mr. MacKay is alive and well at age 104. He was inducted into the state of Alabama Engineering Hall of Fame in 2011.

Source: Maury D. Gaston, American Cast Iron Pipe Company.

Chester Averill

July 4, 1832: Date of letter from Chester Averill (Professor of Chemistry, Union College) to the Mayor of Schenectady, New York during the middle of a cholera epidemic which praised the disinfecting properties of chloride of lime (chlorine). The treatise quoted many learned men of the time who demonstrated that chloride of lime eliminated the spread of contagious diseases by attacking the miasmas associated with them. The letter also made reference to the destruction of certain “viruses” that may have been responsible for transmission of the diseases. The germ theory of disease would not be espoused by Louis Pasteur for another 30-40 years. However, Averill, like many others in the early 19th century suspected that something other than “bad air” caused disease. What follows is a small extract from his treatise.

“‘Chlorine is by far the most powerful agent hitherto discovered to counteract contagion and all kinds of noxious effluvia and its sanative powers appear equally extraordinary.’ Dr. Sillimaii’s Chem. vol. 2, p. 68.

I have here quoted the opinions of eminently scientific men, at least three of whom are M.D.’s. and all of whom, it may be thought, do not deserve to be styled empyrics. But what weight ought these opinions to have in this discussion? Surely no more than those of any other person even much less eminent, unless they are better substantiated by facts. It was thought advisable, however, to quote them, since they may serve to correct any bias which entirely opposite opinions, proceeding from no higher source, may have occasioned.”

Reference: Averill, Chester. Facts Regarding the Disinfecting Powers of Chlorine: With an Explanation of the Mode in Which it Operates and with Directions How it Should be Applied for Disinfecting Purposes. Letter to John I. DeGraff, Mayor of Schenectady. Private printing. 1832.

July 4, 2013: In today’s New York Times (July 4, 2013), there was an extraordinary article that summarized recent research findings on human genetic adaptation to killer cholera. A few quotes give a summary of the findings: “People living in the Ganges Delta, where cholera is an ancient, endemic and often lethal disease, have adapted genetically to the scourge through variations in about 300 genes, say researchers who have scanned their genomes for the fingerprints of evolution.

The researchers also found unexpected changes in genes that protect against arsenic, suggesting that arsenic exposure in Bangladesh is not just a modern problem associated with deep tube wells but may have ancient roots.

These instances of natural selection probably took place within the last 5,000 to 30,000 years, the researchers say, and show how evolution has continued to mold human populations through the relatively recent past…. People with blood group O are particularly susceptible to cholera, and indeed few Bengalis have blood group O. John Mekalanos, a cholera expert at the Harvard Medical School, said the new finding was one of several that ‘are starting to give a strong impression that the human genome has been dramatically shaped by responses to microorganisms.’”

Reference: Wade, Nicholas. 2013. “Gene Sleuths Find How Some Naturally Resist Cholera.” New York Times. July 4, 2013.

March 16, 1802: Corps of Engineers Established; 1804: Birth of Chester Averill

March 16, 1802: President Jefferson authorized to establish the Corps of Engineers. “The history of United States Army Corps of Engineers can be traced back to 16 June 1775, when the Continental Congress organized an army with a chief engineer and two assistants. Colonel Richard Gridley became General George Washington’s first chief engineer; however, it was not until 1779 that Congress created a separate Corps of Engineers. One of its first tasks was to build fortifications near Boston at Bunker Hill. The first Corps was mostly composed of French subjects, who had been hired by General Washington from the service of Louis XVI.

The Corps of Engineers as it is known today came into being on 16 March 1802, when President Thomas Jefferson was authorized to ‘organize and establish a Corps of Engineers … that the said Corps … shall be stationed at West Point in the State of New York and shall constitute a Military Academy.’ Until 1866, the superintendent of the United States Military Academy was always an engineer officer. During the first half of the 19th century, West Point was the major and, for a while, the only engineering school in the country. The Corps’s authority over river works in the United States began with its fortification of New Orleans after the War of 1812.”

Chester Averill

March 16, 1804: Birth of Chester Averill who became a Professor of Chemistry at Union College in Schenectady, New York. Averill is known for a letter that he wrote to the Mayor of Schenectady, New York during the 1832 cholera epidemic which praised the disinfecting properties of chloride of lime (chlorine). The treatise quoted many learned men of the time who demonstrated that chloride of lime eliminated the spread of contagious diseases by attacking the miasmas associated with them. The letter also made reference to the destruction of certain “viruses” that may have been responsible for transmission of the diseases.

Commentary: Averill’s letter is an extraordinary document that is worth reading. He was far ahead of his time. Indeed, he preceded Dr. John Snow’s conclusions about cholera transmission (1849) by 17 years.

August 7, 1837: Death of Chester Averill

Chester Averill

Chester Averill

August 7, 1837: Death of Chester Averill who was Professor of Chemistry at Union College in Schenectady, New York. Averill is known for a letter that he wrote to the Mayor of Schenectady, New York during the 1832 cholera epidemic which praised the disinfecting properties of chloride of lime (chlorine). The treatise quoted many learned men of the time who demonstrated that chloride of lime eliminated the spread of contagious diseases by attacking the miasmas associated with them. The letter also made reference to the destruction of certain “viruses” that may have been responsible for transmission of the diseases.

Commentary: Averill’s letter is an extraordinary document that is worth reading. He was far ahead of his time. Indeed, he preceded Dr. John Snow’s conclusions about cholera transmission (1849) by 17 years.

July 4, 1961: Revolutionary Pipe Joint Patent; 1832: Letter from Chester Averill about Cholera; 2013: Natural Immunity from Cholera

Fastite Joint

Fastite Joint

July 4, 1961: On this date, Patent Number 2,991,092 was issued to Mr. J. W. MacKay of the American Cast Iron Pipe Company in Birmingham, Alabama, for the Fastite push-on-rubber gasket joint for iron pipe. The Fastite gasket uses a dual-durometer gasket having a stiff rubber ring to hold the gasket in place against insertion loads and a softer, fatter section to provide the leak-free seal. The push-on gasket soon supplanted the bolted mechanical joint for virtually all underground pipe-to-pipe connections and is part of ANSI/AWWA C111/A21.11, Rubber-Gasket Joints for Ductile-Iron Pressure Pipe and Fittings. In 2014, Mr. MacKay is alive and well at age 104. He was inducted into the state of Alabama Engineering Hall of Fame in 2011.

Source: Maury D. Gaston, American Cast Iron Pipe Company.

0704 Court for King CholeraJuly 4, 1832: Date of letter from Chester Averill (Professor of Chemistry, Union College) to the Mayor of Schenectady, New York during the middle of a cholera epidemic which praised the disinfecting properties of chloride of lime (chlorine). The treatise quoted many learned men of the time who demonstrated that chloride of lime eliminated the spread of contagious diseases by attacking the miasmas associated with them. The letter also made reference to the destruction of certain “viruses” that may have been responsible for transmission of the diseases. The germ theory of disease would not be espoused by Louis Pasteur for another 30-40 years. However, Averill, like many others in the early 19th century suspected that something other than “bad air” caused disease. What follows is a small extract from his treatise.

“‘Chlorine is by far the most powerful agent hitherto discovered to counteract contagion and all kinds of noxious effluvia and its sanative powers appear equally extraordinary.’ Dr. Sillimaii’s Chem. vol. 2, p. 68.

I have here quoted the opinions of eminently scientific men, at least three of whom are M.D.’s. and all of whom, it may be thought, do not deserve to be styled empyrics. But what weight ought these opinions to have in this discussion? Surely no more than those of any other person even much less eminent, unless they are better substantiated by facts. It was thought advisable, however, to quote them, since they may serve to correct any bias which entirely opposite opinions, proceeding from no higher source, may have occasioned.”

Reference: Averill, Chester. Facts Regarding the Disinfecting Powers of Chlorine: With an Explanation of the Mode in Which it Operates and with Directions How it Should be Applied for Disinfecting Purposes. Letter to John I. DeGraff, Mayor of Schenectady. Private printing. 1832.

Bathing in the Ganges River

Bathing in the Ganges River

July 4, 2013: In today’s New York Times (July 4, 2013), there was an extraordinary article that summarized recent research findings on human genetic adaptation to killer cholera. A few quotes give a summary of the findings: “People living in the Ganges Delta, where cholera is an ancient, endemic and often lethal disease, have adapted genetically to the scourge through variations in about 300 genes, say researchers who have scanned their genomes for the fingerprints of evolution.

The researchers also found unexpected changes in genes that protect against arsenic, suggesting that arsenic exposure in Bangladesh is not just a modern problem associated with deep tube wells but may have ancient roots.

These instances of natural selection probably took place within the last 5,000 to 30,000 years, the researchers say, and show how evolution has continued to mold human populations through the relatively recent past…. People with blood group O are particularly susceptible to cholera, and indeed few Bengalis have blood group O. John Mekalanos, a cholera expert at the Harvard Medical School, said the new finding was one of several that ‘are starting to give a strong impression that the human genome has been dramatically shaped by responses to microorganisms.’”

Reference: Wade, Nicholas. 2013. “Gene Sleuths Find How Some Naturally Resist Cholera.” New York Times. July 4, 2013.

March 16, 1802: Corps of Engineers Established; 1804: Birth of Chester Averill

0316 Corps of Engrs Chester AverillMarch 16, 1802: President Jefferson authorized to establish the Corps of Engineers. “The history of United States Army Corps of Engineers can be traced back to 16 June 1775, when the Continental Congress organized an army with a chief engineer and two assistants. Colonel Richard Gridley became General George Washington’s first chief engineer; however, it was not until 1779 that Congress created a separate Corps of Engineers. One of its first tasks was to build fortifications near Boston at Bunker Hill. The first Corps was mostly composed of French subjects, who had been hired by General Washington from the service of Louis XVI.

The Corps of Engineers as it is known today came into being on 16 March 1802, when President Thomas Jefferson was authorized to ‘organize and establish a Corps of Engineers … that the said Corps … shall be stationed at West Point in the State of New York and shall constitute a Military Academy.’ Until 1866, the superintendent of the United States Military Academy was always an engineer officer. During the first half of the 19th century, West Point was the major and, for a while, the only engineering school in the country. The Corps’s authority over river works in the United States began with its fortification of New Orleans after the War of 1812.”

Chester Averill

Chester Averill

March 16, 1804: Birth of Chester Averill who became a Professor of Chemistry at Union College in Schenectady, New York. Averill is known for a letter that he wrote to the Mayor of Schenectady, New York during the 1832 cholera epidemic which praised the disinfecting properties of chloride of lime (chlorine). The treatise quoted many learned men of the time who demonstrated that chloride of lime eliminated the spread of contagious diseases by attacking the miasmas associated with them. The letter also made reference to the destruction of certain “viruses” that may have been responsible for transmission of the diseases.

Commentary: Averill’s letter is an extraordinary document that is worth reading. He was far ahead of his time. Indeed, he preceded Dr. John Snow’s conclusions about cholera transmission (1849) by 17 years.

 

August 7, 1837: Death of Chester Averill

Chester Averill

Chester Averill

August 7, 1837: Death of Chester Averill who was Professor of Chemistry at Union College in Schenectady, New York. Averill is known for a letter that he wrote to the Mayor of Schenectady, New York during the 1832 cholera epidemic which praised the disinfecting properties of chloride of lime (chlorine). The treatise quoted many learned men of the time who demonstrated that chloride of lime eliminated the spread of contagious diseases by attacking the miasmas associated with them. The letter also made reference to the destruction of certain “viruses” that may have been responsible for transmission of the diseases.

Commentary: Averill’s letter is an extraordinary document that is worth reading. He was far ahead of his time. Indeed, he preceded Dr. John Snow’s conclusions about cholera transmission (1849) by 17 years.

July 4, 1961: Revolutionary Pipe Joint Patent; 1832: Letter from Chester Averill about Cholera; 2013: Natural Immunity from Cholera

Fastite Joint

Fastite Joint

July 4, 1961: On this date, Patent Number 2,991,092 was issued to Mr. J. W. MacKay of the American Cast Iron Pipe Company in Birmingham, Alabama, for the Fastite push-on-rubber gasket joint for iron pipe. The Fastite gasket uses a dual-durometer gasket having a stiff rubber ring to hold the gasket in place against insertion loads and a softer, fatter section to provide the leak-free seal. The push-on gasket soon supplanted the bolted mechanical joint for virtually all underground pipe-to-pipe connections and is part of ANSI/AWWA C111/A21.11, Rubber-Gasket Joints for Ductile-Iron Pressure Pipe and Fittings. In 2014, Mr. MacKay is alive and well at age 104. He was inducted into the state of Alabama Engineering Hall of Fame in 2011.

Source: Maury D. Gaston, American Cast Iron Pipe Company.

0704 Court for King Cholera

July 4, 1832: Date of letter from Chester Averill (Professor of Chemistry, Union College) to the Mayor of Schenectady, New York during the middle of a cholera epidemic which praised the disinfecting properties of chloride of lime (chlorine). The treatise quoted many learned men of the time who demonstrated that chloride of lime eliminated the spread of contagious diseases by attacking the miasmas associated with them. The letter also made reference to the destruction of certain “viruses” that may have been responsible for transmission of the diseases. The germ theory of disease would not be espoused by Louis Pasteur for another 30-40 years. However, Averill, like many others in the early 19th century suspected that something other than “bad air” caused disease. What follows is a small extract from his treatise.

“‘Chlorine is by far the most powerful agent hitherto discovered to counteract contagion and all kinds of noxious effluvia and its sanative powers appear equally extraordinary.’ Dr. Sillimaii’s Chem. vol. 2, p. 68.

I have here quoted the opinions of eminently scientific men, at least three of whom are M.D.’s. and all of whom, it may be thought, do not deserve to be styled empyrics. But what weight ought these opinions to have in this discussion? Surely no more than those of any other person even much less eminent, unless they are better substantiated by facts. It was thought advisable, however, to quote them, since they may serve to correct any bias which entirely opposite opinions, proceeding from no higher source, may have occasioned.”

Reference: Averill, Chester. Facts Regarding the Disinfecting Powers of Chlorine: With an Explanation of the Mode in Which it Operates and with Directions How it Should be Applied for Disinfecting Purposes. Letter to John I. DeGraff, Mayor of Schenectady. Private printing. 1832.

Bathing in the Ganges River

Bathing in the Ganges River

July 4, 2013: In today’s New York Times (July 4, 2013), there was an extraordinary article that summarized recent research findings on human genetic adaptation to killer cholera. A few quotes give a summary of the findings: “People living in the Ganges Delta, where cholera is an ancient, endemic and often lethal disease, have adapted genetically to the scourge through variations in about 300 genes, say researchers who have scanned their genomes for the fingerprints of evolution.

The researchers also found unexpected changes in genes that protect against arsenic, suggesting that arsenic exposure in Bangladesh is not just a modern problem associated with deep tube wells but may have ancient roots.

These instances of natural selection probably took place within the last 5,000 to 30,000 years, the researchers say, and show how evolution has continued to mold human populations through the relatively recent past…. People with blood group O are particularly susceptible to cholera, and indeed few Bengalis have blood group O. John Mekalanos, a cholera expert at the Harvard Medical School, said the new finding was one of several that ‘are starting to give a strong impression that the human genome has been dramatically shaped by responses to microorganisms.’”

Reference: Wade, Nicholas. 2013. “Gene Sleuths Find How Some Naturally Resist Cholera.” New York Times. July 4, 2013.