Tag Archives: common cup

May 24, 1911: Common Cup Banned in Chicago and New Jersey

May 24, 1911:  Municipal Journalarticles.

Drinking Cup Outlawed.“Chicago, Ill.-Chicago physicians are united in praising the action of the Council in outlawing the common drinking cup. Under the terms of the ordinance, public drinking cups must disappear by August 8. All cups and glasses found in schools, office buildings, department stores, physicians’ reception rooms and all public places will be seized.”

Water Cups to Go.“Plainfield, N. ].-The use of the common drinking cup in public places in Plainfield will be a thing of the past after July 4, according to the provisions of the new law enacted by the Legislature, and persons violating the act will be liable to a fine of $25 for each offense. There are a number of places in this city where the law will be effective, such as railroad stations, stores, shops, factories, etc. After July 4 paper cups in slot machines, or some other approved method will have to be adopted, not only here, but all over the State.”

Reference: Municipal Journal. 1911. 30:21(May 24, 1911): 748.

Commentary: The laws passed to ban the common cup had some teeth. They seized any common cups that they found in Chicago and there was a $25 fine in New Jersey. Wait a minute. Common cups were banned in physician waiting rooms? Doctors’ offices? Where people are sick? Gee, that seems kind of harsh.

Advertisements

April 21, 1859: First London Drinking Fountain; 2012: Kirkwood Memorial Dedicated

April 21, 1859:  London’s Oldest Drinking Fountain. “A rather humble looking fountain set into the railing outside the Church of St Sepulchre-without-Newgate at the corner of Giltspur Street and Holborn Viaduct, it’s easy to overlook this important part of London’s historic fabric.

But this free water fountain is London’s oldest and was installed here on 21st April, 1859, by the then Metropolitan Drinking Fountain Association. Established by Samuel Gurney – an MP and the nephew of social reformer Elizabeth Fry, the organization aimed to provide people with free drinking water in a bid to encourage them to choose water over alcohol.

Within two years of the fountain’s creation, the organization – which later changed its name to Metropolitan Drinking Fountain and Cattle Trough Association in reflection of its expanded role in also helping animals – had placed as many as 85 fountains across London.

Such was the need for a clean water supply that, according to the Drinking Fountain Association, as many as 7,000 people a day used the fountain when it was first installed.

The fountain on Holborn Hill was removed in 1867 when the nearby street Snow Hill was widened during the creation of the Holborn Viaduct and the rails replaced but it was returned there in 1913. Rather a poignant reminder of the days when water wasn’t the publicly available resource it is today, the marble fountain still features two small metal cups attached to chains for the ease of drinking and carries the warning, ‘Replace the Cup!’”

Kirkwood Aqueduct, St. Louis, MO

April 21, 2012:  Memorial to James P. Kirkwooddedicated by the St. Louis Section of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Kirkwood was the civil engineer hired by St. Louis, MO to investigate filtration of their water supply.  He wrote the classic book Report on the Filtration of River Waters, which was the first book in any language to focus on the filtration of municipal water supplies.  The book summarized his investigation covering 1865-69 where he described the filters and filter galleries he visited in 19 European water works.  Kirkwood died on April 22, 1877.

April 4, 1912: Common Cup, Typhoid Warning and Electric Purification

April 4, 1912:  Municipal Journalarticles.

“Wage War on Public Drinking Cups. Topeka, Kan.-To prevent the spread of epidemic diseases the State Board of Health has issued an order that public drinking cups must be removed from all the cities of Kansas. City officials were notified the order must be enforced rigidly and business men were requested to remove common drinking cups from their places of business.” Commentary:  Samuel J. Crumbine about whom I have often written over the last seven months was responsible for the ban in Kansas.

“Typhoid Warning at Logansport. Logansport, lnd.-The city’s supply of drinking water is practically cut off owing to the condition of the water following the flood in Eel river, which is the source of the city’s water supply. The high water swept away barns and outbuildings for miles above the city, and seeping back into the river was pumped into the mains. Dr. John Bradfield, secretary of the city health board, has issued a warning to citizens to refrain from drinking the water. The Cass County Medical Society has supplemented the action of the city health board by publishing a statement declaring that an epidemic of typhoid will follow the flood unless the use of city water for drinking purposes is stopped. The three artesian wells which were recently drilled by the city have been surrounded by crowds and water carts are supplying hundreds of homes with water from the wells.”

“Electric Purification To Be Tried. Eldorado, Kan.-Sewage at Eldorado will be disinfected by electricity. The engineers of the State university, are making a test of a system by which waste is disintegrated and all organic matter destroyed by an electric current.” Commentary:  Everyone was fascinated by electric power at the turn of the 20thcentury. Unfortunately, destroying wastes by electrical current was not one of the successful applications.

Reference:  Municipal Journal. 32:14(April 4, 1912): 525.

February 23, 1980: Death of Alvin Percy Black; 1893: Interstate Quarantine Act Becomes Law

February 23, 1980:  Death of Alvin P. Black.“Born in Blossom, Texas, [on August 30] 1895, Alvin earned a B.S. Degree at Southwestern University, completed graduate studies at Iowa State College and Harvard, and received his Doctorate Degree from the University of Iowa. During World War I, he served in the Chemical Warfare Service; following that, he joined the faculty of the University of Florida in 1920 as Assistant Professor of Chemistry. During his tenure there, Dr. Black earned national and international recognition in the field of water chemistry. He served as a consultant to numerous municipalities throughout the country since 1935.

Dr. Black joined the American Water Works Association in 1929 and served as both National Director and President. He also served as a member of the National Advisory Dental Research Council of the U.S. Public Health Service, and was appointed by the Surgeon General of the United States as one of the original members of the Advisory Committee on Coagulant Aids in water treatment. Dr. Black also served as a national consultant to the Office of Saline Water of the Department of the Interior. He is considered, today, a pioneer in the design of water treatment systems.

Dr. Black was the recipient of numerous awards and honors for his work and contributions to the development of systems and techniques in the field of water purification and distribution. He was one of the original founders, along with William B. Crow and Frederic A. Eidsness, of Black, Crow and Eidsness, which became part of CH2M HILL in 1977. He passed away on February 23, 1980, at the age of 84.”

Commentary:  In 2009, I was honored to receive the A.P. Black Research Award from the American Water Works Association.  Shortly after the award was announced, I received a phone call from John V. Miner who said Doc Black was a friend, mentor and second father to him. He was kind enough to place into my care a book entitled Collected Works of A.P. Black—1933-1966. The book of Doc Black’s papers was put together by Ed Singley (a colleague and friend of mine) and Ching-lin Chen, both students of Doc Black. John Miner asked that I keep the book for as long as I wanted to but then pass it on to another. The inscription on the flyleaf of the book reads:  “To one of my sons, John Miner from Doc Black, his second Dad.”

Update:  I sent the book to the University of Florida so that it could be used in a display honoring Dr. Black.

February 23, 1893:Interstate Quarantine Act becomes law.“In 1893 Congress passed the Interstate Quarantine Act to reduce the spread of communicable diseases through interstate commerce. The act gave the Department of the Treasury broad powers to establish regulations preventing the spread of disease from one state to another in the following clause (Cumming 1932; Kraut 1994):

‘The Secretary of the Treasury shall, if in his judgment it is necessary and proper, make such additional rules and regulations as are necessary to prevent the introduction of such diseases (communicable) into the United States from foreign countries, or into one State or Territory or the District of Columbia from another State or Territory or the District of Columbia ….’

This clause was not immediately perceived as requiring any regulations relating to drinking water. In fact, methods of bacteriological analysis and water treatment were not sufficiently developed at this time for the establishment of quantitative standards.”

Reference: Fischbeck, Paul S. and R. Scott Farrow eds. Improving Regulation:  Cases in Environment, Health and Safety. Washington, DC:Resources for the Future. 2001, p. 52.

Commentary:  However, in 1912 the common cup was banned on interstate carriers using this law as the basis for regulation by the Treasury Department. In 1914, the first microbiological drinking water regulations were adopted under the Interstate Quarantine Act that governed the quality of water served aboard interstate carriers (trains, riverboats and Great Lakes steamers).

 

http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=F10A10FC3D5C17738DDDAE0894DA415B8285F0D3

 

http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9A04E3D61331E033A25755C1A9679C94629ED7CF

 

http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=F10B10FA3C5911738DDDAB0894D8415B8985F0D3this is where the date is stated.

January 28, 1912: Common Cup Banned in 24 States

January 28, 1912:  New York Times headline—The Drinking Cup Law:  It is Now in Force in 24 States. “The fact that in one year the common drinking cup has been abolished by law in twenty-four States is commented upon as follows in the Journal of the American Medical Association:

Public sentiment is a strange and illusive force. It sometimes fails to respond, in spite of every effort to arouse its interest in a worthy case. Again, it suddenly asserts itself without any known reason. One of the strangest of recent manifestations of this force of public sentiment is the present crusade against the common drinking cup. For years physicians and sanitarians have urged the danger and the filthiness of common drinking utensils. With few exceptions their words seemed to fall on deaf ears. The public, apparently, was not interested. But suddenly, without any manifest reason, the point of saturation seemed to be reached. Crystallization of public opinion began. States began to enact laws, and cities to pass ordinances abolishing the common drinking cup in all public places. State after State took it up. There was no concerted movement; there was scarcely any organization behind it; there was little special effort needed.

The people evidently had made up their minds that common drinking cups were bad and must go. So they have abolished them in at least twenty-four States in a little more than one year’s time. These States are California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Utah, Vermont, and Washington. Doubtless the other States will act as soon as they have an opportunity.

The moral is: Saturate the public with facts, and when the people are convinced, they will act.”

Common Cup Today in Istanbul; the Common Cup still exists in many countries

Commentary:  I wish it were that easy. Generally, the public resists hearing about facts related to public health. However, clearly a “tipping point” of some sort had been reached in the public’s consciousness. The action of the states clearly led to the federal action later in 1912. On October 30, 2012, we observed the 100thanniversaryof the first federal drinking water regulation, which was adopted by the U.S. Treasury Department that prohibited the use of the common drinking cup on interstate carriers. Seven articles in my blog safedrinkingwaterdotcomprovided a countdown to the anniversary date.

December 11, 1843: Birth of Robert Koch; 1913: Reservoir Dam Breaks…and other amazing stories

December 11, 1843:  Birth of Robert Koch. Robert Heinrich HermannKoch was born December 11, 1843, in the small city of Clausthal in what was then called Lower Saxony. The city is 120 miles south and a little east of Hamburg and about the same distance west and a little south of Berlin. American microbiologist Thomas D. Brock’s excellent 1999 biography of Koch chronicled his life, triumphs, and tragedies. Koch studied many diseases besides those that were waterborne. In addition to his innovative work in water bacteriology, he became world-famous for isolating and accurately describing the tubercle bacillus, the cause of anthrax disease (Bacillus anthracis), the cholera germ, and the genus of Staphylococcusorganisms that cause many infections in humans.

It was Robert Koch who revolutionized our understanding of microscopic organisms in water and their relation to specific diseases. Once again, tools were crucial to progress. Although Koch had basic microscopes, not everything could be described or investigated under a microscope. He needed methods to examine what made microorganisms grow and die. So, he and the scientists in his laboratory developed the tools that advanced the science of bacteriology, many of which are still in use today (i.e., standard plate count, coliform test).

In 1880, Koch changed from a German country doctor performing clever experiments in a spare bedroom to a professional researcher at the Imperial Health Office in Berlin.  It was not until December 1875 that he did his famous experiment with anthrax by injecting a rabbit with material from a diseased source and infecting the rabbit with the disease. He did not publish the paper describing his groundbreaking anthrax research until December 1876.

In Berlin, Koch realized that the key to advances in bacteriology was development of pure cultures of the organisms causing disease. He was aware of early work in which a limited number of bacteria were grown on the solid surface of potato slices. However, the human pathogens he was interested in studying did not grow very well on a potato substrate.

Robert Koch developed the tools that spawned the next generation of advances in bacteriology, and these advances provide a direct link to the two Jersey City trials. Without his breakthroughs, there would not have been any bacteriological data to determine if the Boonton Reservoir was providing pure and wholesome water to Jersey City.

In 1881, Koch published his seminal paper on bacterial growth on a solid medium. Called the “Bible of Bacteriology,” the paper (in German) described in some detail how Koch combined the liquid medium in which pathogens would grow with a solidifying agent—gelatin. The transparent nutrient gelatin could be fixed onto a transparent glass plate, and the use of a magnifying lens made counting the bacterial colonies that grew on the nutrient medium quite easy. Because of his research on tuberculosis, Koch received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1905.

In 1908, Koch and his wife visited the United States as part of a world tour. In many ways, this trip was Koch’s victory lap. But the trip was the beginning of the end for Koch; he died two years later in Baden-Baden on May 27, 1910, at the age of 67.

References: 

Brock, Thomas D. 1999. Robert Koch: A Life in Medicine and Bacteriology. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press.

McGuire, Michael J. 2013. The Chlorine Revolution:  Water Disinfection and the Fight to Save Lives. Denver, CO:American Water Works Association.

December 11, 1913:  Reservoir Dam Breaks…and other amazing stories.

Reservoir Dam Breaks.Abilene, Tex.-A break has occurred in the dam at Syth Lake Reservoir, effecting a great gap through which 600,000,000 gallons of water escaped. A large section of the land bordering on the reservoir was badly flooded. The city of Abilene had to go without water and for that reason the electric power plant was forced to shut down its boilers. The manufacturing plants were also unable to operate.

Hydrants to be Standardized.Oak Point, Cal.-An important improvement was ordered for this district by Commissioner of Public Works E. M. Wilder. Wilder has directed that all hydrants be standardized so that the same size wrench or spanner may open any of the hydrants in this district. Recently many complaints have been filed on account of broken nuts on the hydrants, caused by the use of different kinds of wrenches.

Reference:  Municipal Journal. 1913. 35:24 (December 11, 1913): 800.

 

November 15, 1910: New York Abolishes Common Cup

November 15, 1910New York Times headline—Would Abolish Common Cup. “Albany, Nov. 15—“There is no excuse for a public drinking cup, on the train or anywhere else, now that penny-in-the-slot machines serve out paper cups and that metal collapsible cups can be purchased for a dime,” says a circular sent out by the State Department of Health. The Health Department is co-operating with the railroads to do away with the public drinking cup on trains and in railroad stations. It is stated that there is great possibility of the transmission of disease by the use of the common drinking cup….”

CommentaryOn October 30, 2012, we observed the 100th anniversaryof the first drinking water regulation, which was adopted by the U.S. Treasury Department that prohibited the use of the common drinking cup on interstate carriers. Individual states like New York and Kansas led the way by raising awareness of this serious public health problem. Seven articles in my blog safedrinkingwaterdotcomprovided a countdown to the anniversary date.