Tag Archives: death rate

February 5, 1914: Low Typhoid Death Rate in Providence, RI and Sale of Treatment Plant in New Jersey

Charles V. Chapin

February 5, 1914: Municipal Journalarticle. Reduce Death Rate from Typhoid. “Providence, R. I.-The death rate from typhoid fever in Providence in 1913 was 10 per 100,000 in an estimated population of 241,000, the lowest rate for ·the disease ever recorded in this city, according to figures compiled for City Registrar C. V. Chapin. Since 1884 the typhoid death rate here has been reduced from 42.62 to its 1913 mark of 10. The average death rate from the disease for the entire period is 24.10. The best previous record was 11.02, attained in 1911. The 1912 rate was 11.65.”

Commentary:  Charles V. Chapin was one of the leaders of the public health movement in the U.S. and he spent great energy improving the death rates for waterborne illnesses in his city.

February 5, 1914: Municipal Journalarticle. Offers to Sell Plant to New Jersey. “Passaic N. J.-Since the issuance of the State Water Supply Commission’s report, the East Jersey Water Company has accepted the value placed upon its property by the state’s appraisers. Moreover, the property may be acquired without the investment of any cash, for the state can assume the outstanding bonds of the company, amounting to $7,500,000, and give the present owners additional bonds in the sum of $1,300,000 for their equity. These terms were offered, notwithstanding the difference in the inventories of the state’s and company’s appraisers, the East Jersey company estimating the value of their property at $1,171,700 above the commission’s figures. The bonds can be directly assumed by the State Water Supply Commission for the municipalities, and the plan of the commission,  if the property is bought, is to lease the plant to the municipalities for the exact sum of the carrying charges. The acquisition of the company system would mean a water supply of 50,000,000 gallons daily.”

Reference:  Municipal Journal. 1914. 36:6(February 5, 1914): 181.

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January 23, 1913: Night soil Incinerator and NYC Death Rate

January 23, 1913:  Two articles in Engineering News.

“Night Soil Incinerating Furnace at a Contractor’s Camp.” By Arthur W. Tidd, “The new 500-million-gallons-daily Catskill water-system for New York City, now being built by the Board of Water Supply, necessitates that construction work shall be carried on from the Ashokan Reservoir in the Catskill Mountains to New York City, a distance of approximately 100 miles. Throughout the whole length of the line a sanitary control is exercised, under the supervision of sanitary experts employed by the Board of Water Supply, over the housing and living of the laborers employed on the work and the disposal of all wastes.

Clauses are inserted in the specifications of each contract placing upon the contractor the duty of carrying out the provisions required for proper sanitation and specifying in many cases just what these provisions shall be. One of these is the provision that buildings for the sanitary necessities of all persons employed on the work shall be provided, and that all excreta shall be incinerated daily….

For the camp the four corners of the incinerator house are partitioned off into independent closets, entered only from the outside, two for the men having six seats each, two for the women having two seats each. The galvanized pans are used here also, being removed from the back of the closets on the inside of the building as indicated in cross-section of the building shown in Fig. 2.” (emphasis added)

Commentary:  An early commitment by New York City to protect the water supply for the City.

NYC Street Scene, 1913

“A Low Record Death Rate for New York City.” “A total of 73,008 deaths in a single city in one year seems appalling until it is known that the city was New York, with a population sufficiently above five million to bring the rate per 1000 down to the remarkably low figure of 14.11. There are possibilities, of course, that the population estimate is too high or that the death registration was incomplete, but there seems to be reasonable basis for confidence in both. This confidence is increased when it is noted that the total number of deaths in 1912 was 2418 less than in 1911, and much less than the average for the ten years 1902-11; that there were heavy reductions over the average for 1902-11, in all the communicable diseases, in mortality from diarrheal diseases under five years of age, and in infant mortality; and that in the large non-communicable class the only increases in 1912 were in deaths from cancer, homicide and organic heart disease–the latter being offset by a decline in deaths from apoplexy and diseases of the arteries.

It is particularly gratifying to note that the typhoid fever death rate for 1912 was 34% less than the average for the previous decade and that the infant-mortality rate for the year was only105 per 1000 reported births, the lowest ever recorded.”

Commentary:  Improvement in the sanitary quality of the New York City water supply, improvement in the milk supply and better medical care account for much of the progress noted. NYC still had a long way to go. The infant mortality rate was 10% of live births which would be unconscionable today.

Reference:  Engineering News. 1913. 69:4(January 23, 1913): 164, 175.

February 5, 1914: Low Typhoid Death Rate in Providence, RI and Sale of Treatment Plant in New Jersey

Charles V. Chapin

February 5, 1914: Municipal Journal article. Reduce Death Rate from Typhoid. “Providence, R. I.-The death rate from typhoid fever in Providence in 1913 was 10 per 100,000 in an estimated population of 241,000, the lowest rate for ·the disease ever recorded in this city, according to figures compiled for City Registrar C. V. Chapin. Since 1884 the typhoid death rate here has been reduced from 42.62 to its 1913 mark of 10. The average death rate from the disease for the entire period is 24.10. The best previous record was 11.02, attained in 1911. The 1912 rate was 11.65.”

Commentary:  Charles V. Chapin was one of the leaders of the public health movement in the U.S. and he spent great energy improving the death rates for waterborne illnesses in his city.

About 1925. The old Morris Canal being destroyed at Little Falls, showing the treatment plant in the background

February 5, 1914: Municipal Journal article. Offers to Sell Plant to New Jersey. “Passaic N. J.-Since the issuance of the State Water Supply Commission’s report, the East Jersey Water Company has accepted the value placed upon its property by the state’s appraisers. Moreover, the property may be acquired without the investment of any cash, for the state can assume the outstanding bonds of the company, amounting to $7,500,000, and give the present owners additional bonds in the sum of $1,300,000 for their equity. These terms were offered, notwithstanding the difference in the inventories of the state’s and company’s appraisers, the East Jersey company estimating the value of their property at $1,171,700 above the commission’s figures. The bonds can be directly assumed by the State Water Supply Commission for the municipalities, and the plan of the commission,  if the property is bought, is to lease the plant to the municipalities for the exact sum of the carrying charges. The acquisition of the company system would mean a water supply of 50,000,000 gallons daily.”

Reference:  Municipal Journal. 1914. 36:6(February 5, 1914): 181.

#TDIWH-January 23, 1913: Night soil Incinerator and NYC Death Rate

January 23, 1913:  Two articles in Engineering News.

“Night Soil Incinerating Furnace at a Contractor’s Camp.” By Arthur W. Tidd, “The new 500-million-gallons-daily Catskill water-system for New York City, now being built by the Board of Water Supply, necessitates that construction work shall be carried on from the Ashokan Reservoir in the Catskill Mountains to New York City, a distance of approximately 100 miles. Throughout the whole length of the line a sanitary control is exercised, under the supervision of sanitary experts employed by the Board of Water Supply, over the housing and living of the laborers employed on the work and the disposal of all wastes.

Clauses are inserted in the specifications of each contract placing upon the contractor the duty of carrying out the provisions required for proper sanitation and specifying in many cases just what these provisions shall be. One of these is the provision that buildings for the sanitary necessities of all persons employed on the work shall be provided, and that all excreta shall be incinerated daily….

For the camp the four corners of the incinerator house are partitioned off into independent closets, entered only from the outside, two for the men having six seats each, two for the women having two seats each. The galvanized pans are used here also, being removed from the back of the closets on the inside of the building as indicated in cross-section of the building shown in Fig. 2.” (emphasis added)

Commentary:  An early commitment by New York City to protect the water supply for the City.

NYC Street Scene, 1913

“A Low Record Death Rate for New York City.” “A total of 73,008 deaths in a single city in one year seems appalling until it is known that the city was New York, with a population sufficiently above five million to bring the rate per 1000 down to the remarkably low figure of 14.11. There are possibilities, of course, that the population estimate is too high or that the death registration was incomplete, but there seems to be reasonable basis for confidence in both. This confidence is increased when it is noted that the total number of deaths in 1912 was 2418 less than in 1911, and much less than the average for the ten years 1902-11; that there were heavy reductions over the average for 1902-11, in all the communicable diseases, in mortality from diarrheal diseases under five years of age, and in infant mortality; and that in the large non-communicable class the only increases in 1912 were in deaths from cancer, homicide and organic heart disease–the latter being offset by a decline in deaths from apoplexy and diseases of the arteries.

It is particularly gratifying to note that the typhoid fever death rate for 1912 was 34% less than the average for the previous decade and that the infant-mortality rate for the year was only 105 per 1000 reported births, the lowest ever recorded.”

Commentary:  Improvement in the sanitary quality of the New York City water supply, improvement in the milk supply and better medical care account for much of the progress noted. NYC still had a long way to go. The infant mortality rate was 10% of live births which would be unconscionable today.

Reference:  Engineering News. 1913. 69:4(January 23, 1913): 164, 175.

#TDIWH—February 5, 1914: Low Typhoid Death Rate in Providence, RI and Sale of Treatment Plant in New Jersey

Charles V. Chapin

Charles V. Chapin

February 5, 1914: Municipal Journal article. Reduce Death Rate from Typhoid. “Providence, R. I.-The death rate from typhoid fever in Providence in 1913 was 10 per 100,000 in an estimated population of 241,000, the lowest rate for ·the disease ever recorded in this city, according to figures compiled for City Registrar C. V. Chapin. Since 1884 the typhoid death rate here has been reduced from 42.62 to its 1913 mark of 10. The average death rate from the disease for the entire period is 24.10. The best previous record was 11.02, attained in 1911. The 1912 rate was 11.65.”

Commentary: Charles V. Chapin was one of the leaders of the public health movement in the U.S. and he spent great energy improving the death rates for waterborne illnesses in his city.

0205 pvwcFebruary 5, 1914: Municipal Journal article. Offers to Sell Plant to New Jersey. “Passaic N. J.-Since the issuance of the State Water Supply Commission’s report, the East Jersey Water Company has accepted the value placed upon its property by the state’s appraisers. Moreover, the property may be acquired without the investment of any cash, for the state can assume the outstanding bonds of the company, amounting to $7,500,000, and give the present owners additional bonds in the sum of $1,300,000 for their equity. These terms were offered, notwithstanding the difference in the inventories of the state’s and company’s appraisers, the East Jersey company estimating the value of their property at $1,171,700 above the commission’s figures. The bonds can be directly assumed by the State Water Supply Commission for the municipalities, and the plan of the commission, if the property is bought, is to lease the plant to the municipalities for the exact sum of the carrying charges. The acquisition of the company system would mean a water supply of 50,000,000 gallons daily.”

Reference: Municipal Journal. 1914. 36:6(February 5, 1914): 181.

#TDIWH—January 23, 1913: Night soil Incinerator and NYC Death Rate

January 23, 1913: Two articles in Engineering News.

0123 Nightsoil Incinerator1“Night Soil Incinerating Furnace at a Contractor’s Camp.” By Arthur W. Tidd, “The new 500-million-gallons-daily Catskill water-system for New York City, now being built by the Board of Water Supply, necessitates that construction work shall be carried on from the Ashokan Reservoir in the Catskill Mountains to New York City, a distance of approximately 100 miles. Throughout the whole length of the line a sanitary control is exercised, under the supervision of sanitary experts employed by the Board of Water Supply, over the housing and living of the laborers employed on the work and the disposal of all wastes.

Clauses are inserted in the specifications of each contract placing upon the contractor the duty of carrying out the provisions required for proper sanitation and specifying in many cases just what these provisions shall be. One of these is the provision that buildings for the sanitary necessities of all persons employed on the work shall be provided, and that all excreta shall be incinerated daily….

0123 Nightsoil Incinerator2For the camp the four corners of the incinerator house are partitioned off into independent closets, entered only from the outside, two for the men having six seats each, two for the women having two seats each. The galvanized pans are used here also, being removed from the back of the closets on the inside of the building as indicated in cross-section of the building shown in Fig. 2.” (emphasis added)

Commentary: An early commitment by New York City to protect the water supply for the City.

“A Low Record Death Rate for New York City.” “A total of 73,008 deaths in a single city in one year seems appalling until it is known that the city was New York, with a population sufficiently above five million to bring the rate per 1000 down to the remarkably low figure of 14.11. There are possibilities, of course, that the population estimate is too high or that the death registration was incomplete, but there seems to be reasonable basis for confidence in both. This confidence is increased when it is noted that the total number of deaths in 1912 was 2418 less than in 1911, and much less than the average for the ten years 1902-11; that there were heavy reductions over the average for 1902-11, in all the communicable diseases, in mortality from diarrheal diseases under five years of age, and in infant mortality; and that in the large non-communicable class the only increases in 1912 were in deaths from cancer, homicide and organic heart disease–the latter being offset by a decline in deaths from apoplexy and diseases of the arteries.

It is particularly gratifying to note that the typhoid fever death rate for 1912 was 34% less than the average for the previous decade and that the infant-mortality rate for the year was only 105 per 1000 reported births, the lowest ever recorded.”

Commentary: Improvement in the sanitary quality of the New York City water supply, improvement in the milk supply and better medical care account for much of the progress noted. NYC still had a long way to go. The infant mortality rate was 10% of live births which would be unconscionable today.

Reference: Engineering News. 1913. 69:4(January 23, 1913): 164, 175.

#TDIWH—January 23, 1913: Night soil Incinerator and NYC Death Rate

0123 Nightsoil Incinerator1January 23, 1913: Two articles in Engineering News.

“Night Soil Incinerating Furnace at a Contractor’s Camp.” By Arthur W. Tidd, “The new 500-million-gallons-daily Catskill water-system for New York City, now being built by the Board of Water Supply, necessitates that construction work shall be carried on from the Ashokan Reservoir in the Catskill Mountains to New York City, a distance of approximately 100 miles. Throughout the whole length of the line a sanitary control is exercised, under the supervision of sanitary experts employed by the Board of Water Supply, over the housing and living of the laborers employed on the work and the disposal of all wastes.

Clauses are inserted in the specifications of each contract placing upon the contractor the duty of carrying out the provisions required for proper sanitation and specifying in many cases just what these provisions shall be. One of these is the provision that buildings for the sanitary necessities of all persons employed on the work shall be provided, and that all excreta shall be incinerated daily….

0123 Nightsoil Incinerator2For the camp the four corners of the incinerator house are partitioned off into independent closets, entered only from the outside, two for the men having six seats each, two for the women having two seats each. The galvanized pans are used here also, being removed from the back of the closets on the inside of the building as indicated in cross-section of the building shown in Fig. 2.” (emphasis added)

Commentary: An early commitment by New York City to protect the water supply for the City.

“A Low Record Death Rate for New York City.” “A total of 73,008 deaths in a single city in one year seems appalling until it is known that the city was New York, with a population sufficiently above five million to bring the rate per 1000 down to the remarkably low figure of 14.11. There are possibilities, of course, that the population estimate is too high or that the death registration was incomplete, but there seems to be reasonable basis for confidence in both. This confidence is increased when it is noted that the total number of deaths in 1912 was 2418 less than in 1911, and much less than the average for the ten years 1902-11; that there were heavy reductions over the average for 1902-11, in all the communicable diseases, in mortality from diarrheal diseases under five years of age, and in infant mortality; and that in the large non-communicable class the only increases in 1912 were in deaths from cancer, homicide and organic heart disease–the latter being offset by a decline in deaths from apoplexy and diseases of the arteries.

It is particularly gratifying to note that the typhoid fever death rate for 1912 was 34% less than the average for the previous decade and that the infant-mortality rate for the year was only 105 per 1000 reported births, the lowest ever recorded.”

Commentary: Improvement in the sanitary quality of the New York City water supply, improvement in the milk supply and better medical care account for much of the progress noted. NYC still had a long way to go. The infant mortality rate was 10% of live births which would be unconscionable today.

Reference: Engineering News. 1913. 69:4(January 23, 1913): 164, 175.