Tag Archives: drinking water

#TDIWH—February 22, 1913: Wallace and Tiernan and Over 100 years of Chlorination; 1989: Abel Wolman Dies

0222 Old Number OneFebruary 22, 1913: Over 100 Years of chlorination by Wallace & Tiernan. The company’s first gas-feed chlorinator, an experimental apparatus, was installed on a tributary of the Rockaway River at Dover, New Jersey, on February 22, 1913. Wallace & Tiernan was the dominant producer of chlorination equipment in the first decades of the twentieth century. Wallace & Tiernan were first founded in New York City, but shortly thereafter, they moved their administrative and manufacturing operations to Belleville, New Jersey. There were many connections between the early days of Wallace & Tiernan and the Jersey City water supply. William Griffin, superintendent of the Jersey City water department, hired Charles F. Wallace and Martin F. Tiernan to disinfect the polluted stream near Dover that was contaminating the Rockaway River as it flowed into Boonton Reservoir. Two of the expert witness in the Jersey City trials, Charles E. North and Earle B. Phelps, hired the two men in the very beginning of their careers to help install disinfection systems in cities as part of North and Phelps’s consulting practice. Tiernan actually ran the chloride of lime feed system at Boonton Reservoir in the early fall of 1912 when the chemist was on vacation.

References:

Tiernan, Martin F. 1948 . “Controlling the Green Goddess.” Journal AWWA. 40:10 1042-50.

Wallace & Tiernan’s Fiftieth Anniversary. 1963. Brochure prepared for the Fiftieth Anniversary of Wallace & Tiernan, Inc.

0222 Abel WolmanFebruary 22, 1989: Abel Wolman dies. “Abel Wolman (June 10, 1892 – February 22, 1989) was an American inventor, scientist, professor and pioneer of modern sanitary engineering.

Wolman was born, grew up, was educated, lived and died in Baltimore, Maryland. He graduated from the Baltimore City College in 1909, got a B.A. from the Johns Hopkins University in 1913 and then a B.S. in engineering from Hopkins in 1915. From 1914 to 1939, Wolman worked for the Maryland State Department of Health, serving as Chief Engineer from 1922 to 1939. It was during his early years there that he made his most important contribution. Working in cooperation with chemist Linn Enslow, he standardized the methods used to chlorinate Baltimore’s drinking-water supply. His efforts there helped develop the plan for Baltimore’s water supply so thoroughly and effectively that it remains well-provided for growth through the 21st century. His work also benefited water systems in New York, Detroit and Columbus, Ohio. A collection of his writings has been published: Water, Health and Society, Selected Papers. Wolman served as the Chairman of the Advisory Council for planning Israel’s National Water Carrier project (1950-1956).

Wolman taught for many years on the faculty of Johns Hopkins University, where he established the Department of Sanitary Engineering in 1937. He served as the department’s chairman until his official retirement in 1962….

Wolman became Editor of the American Water Works Association’s Journal AWWA in 1919 and was responsible for making it into a monthly publication in 1924. The Association presents the Abel Wolman Award of Excellence each year to recognize those whose careers in the water works industry exemplify vision, creativity, and excellent professional performance characteristic of Wolman’s long and productive career.”

Commentary: It is fitting that the anniversary of the first use of a Wallace & Tiernan chlorinator falls on the anniversary of Abel Wolman’s death. In the early 1920s, he and Linn Enslow modernized the system for determining the needed chlorine dose to provide safe drinking water. Prior to their work, chlorine doses were a matter of much guesswork.

#TDIWH—February 20, 1862: Willie Lincoln Dies of Typhoid

250px-WILLIEFebruary 20, 1862: President Abraham Lincoln and Mary Todd Lincoln were grief stricken when their eleven-year-old son, Willie, died from typhoid fever, which may have been due to polluted drinking water delivered to the White House. His full name was William Wallace Lincoln but his parents called him Willie.

“Willie and his younger brother Tad were considered “notorious hellions” during the period they lived in Springfield. They’re recorded by Abraham’s law partner William Herndon for turning their law office upside down; pulling the books off the shelves while their father appeared oblivious to their behavior.

Upon their father’s election as President both Willie and Tad moved into the White House and it became their new playground. At the request of Mrs. Lincoln, Julia Taft brought her younger brothers, 12-year-old “Bud” and 8-year-old “Holly” to the White House and they became playmates of Willie and Tad.

Willie and Tad both became ill in early 1862, and although Tad recovered, Willie’s condition fluctuated from day to day. The most likely cause of the illness was typhoid fever, which was usually contracted by consumption of fecally contaminated food/water. The White House drew its water from the Potomac River, along which thousands of soldiers and horses were camped. Gradually Willie weakened, and both parents spent much time at his bedside. Finally, on Thursday, February 20, 1862, at 5:00 p.m., Willie died. Abraham said, ‘My poor boy. He was too good for this earth. God has called him home. I know that he is much better off in heaven, but then we loved him so. It is hard, hard to have him die!’”

Willie was only 11 years old when he died.

Commentary: Typhoid fever caused by contaminated water killed by the hundreds of thousands every year. The suffering of the parents of children was great and avoidable. It would take Louis Pasteur, the germ theory of disease, Dr. John Snow, public health professionals and the sanitary engineers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries to eventually break the death spiral of sewage contaminated drinking water.

#TDIWH—February 19, 1914: Large Steel Water Tank in Youngstown, OH

0219 Steel TankFebruary 19, 1914: Engineering News article. “A steel tank 100 ft. diameter and 50 ft. high, with a capacity of 2,938,000 gal., is being built at Youngstown, Ohio, in connection with the water-supply service. The design is shown in Fig. 1. There are ten rings of plate, with double-strap butt joints for the vertical seams. These have ten rows of rivets (staggered) in the first two rings, eight in the third, six up to the eighth ring, four in the ninth and two in the tenth or top ring. There is a 20-in. inlet pipe with lead- and oakum-calked joint in the bottom plate, and a 24-in. overflow pipe of 3/8-in. riveted plate….

The tank is built without a roof, but has around the top a steel balcony with hand-rail. This balcony not only serves as a walk but also acts as a horizontal girder to stiffen the top of the tank.

The riveting is done with a large compression yoke riveter, except that the riveting of the bottom and the balcony is done with air hammers. The yoke riveter is suspended from a stiff-leg derrick, as shown in Fig. 3. The mast of this derrick is pivoted in the center of the tank and each stiff-leg is mounted on a small truck riding on a circular track, so that the boom and derrick frame can revolve through a complete circle. The power plant, air compressor and hoisting engine are located just outside the tank. The estimated weight of the tank complete is approximately 500 tons, and there are about 70,000 field rivets.

Reference: “A Large Steel Water Tank.” 1914. Engineering News 71:8(February 19, 1914):412-3.

Commentary: Note the lead and oakum-caulked joint. Lead would still be used in water works facility construction for many decades after 1914. Also, note that the reservoir did not have a roof. Uncovered finished water reservoirs finally suffered their death blow with the USEPA regulation—Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule. This story interested me because of the yoke riveter (on right center of Fig 3 with man standing on top) and derrick. This technology is long gone (I think), but it is interesting to see how they built reservoirs 99 years ago.

Stiff-Leg Derrick

Stiff-Leg Derrick

#TDIWH—February 16, 1974: Chlorine Shortage

0216 chlorine shortage picFebruary 16, 1974: New York Times headline– Chlorine Shortage: Threat to Drinking Water. “LINCOLN, Neb.-The nation faces a threat to its safe drinking water that could grow into a serious crisis it .steps are not taken soon to head it off. The problem traces back to the chlorine shortage that has been building since early 1973.”

Wilmington Star-News Headline-Chlorine Shortage May Affect Cities. “An Environmental Protection Agency official said Tuesday some municipalities will be hit this year by a shortage of chlorine to purify drinking wager, but that the supply should improve in 1975. Deputy Administrator John T. Rhett urged approval of legislation giving the government standby authority to impose a mandatory allocation system on the industry ‘to cope with serious shortage situations if such should develop during 1974.’

Rhett told a Senate Commerce subcommittee that chlorine was forecast ‘to be in short supply throughout most of 1974 if current economic conditions continue.’…The manager of the Denver Water Department said he has had difficulty obtaining a adequate supply of chlorine and warned that the health of ‘literally millions of Americans is threatened unless immediate action is taken’ on a mandatory allocation bill.”

#TDIWH—February 12, 1914: Detroit Sewer Gas Explosion and Front Royal Water Supply

0212 Flying Manhole CoversFebruary 12, 1914: Municipal Journal article. Damaging Sewer Gas Explosion. “Detroit. Mich.-An explosion of gas in the 18th street sewer has sent manhole covers flying skyward, torn up pavements, shattered windows, and wrecked outbuildings in the western part of the city. The district affected covered a dozen or more blocks. No one was seriously injured, but there were scores of narrow escapes from death as the heavy pieces of iron and paving blocks fell back to the ground. Damage to pavements is estimated at $25,000, while the loss to private property probably will exceed that amount.”

0212 Flying Manhole Covers2February 12, 1914: Municipal Journal article. State Board Commends Water System. Front Royal, Va.-Officers of the State Board of Health who have just made an inspection of the new water supply of Front Royal, expressed high commendation of the system in a statement recently issued. The valley town, they declare, now has one of the best water supplies of the state and can guarantee to all visitors absolute freedom from water borne diseases. Front Royal has proceeded to install its new water supply with very creditable foresight. The town is almost ideally situated for good health and now is in a pos1t10n to protect its water beyond possible contamination. The system just installed includes a coagulation basin, gravity mechanical filters, storage basins for the filtered water, and as an extra precaution, apparatus for sterilizing the water before it is turned into the mains. The work is of concrete with the most modern and up-to-date appliances and the total cost, $17,000 was borne by the town without a bond issue. Since the first of the year the people have been getting a supply of clear, sparkling and pure water of the highest quality. The capacity of the plant is 1,000,000 gallons per day, or more than twice as much as the town now uses.

Reference: Municipal Journal 1914. 36:7(February 12, 1914): 213.

#TDIWH—February 11, 1915: Detroit Metering and Burst NYC Water Main

Vintage Bronze 1909 Water Meter

Vintage Bronze 1909 Water Meter

February 11, 1915: Municipal Journal article. Metering in Detroit. Detroit, Mich.-“Superintendent Theodore A. Leisen and the water board are asking for about $561,000 to complete the installation of meters. About 21,000 are now in service and about 100,000 are needed altogether. The water officials contend that the cost and maintenance of the system fully metered would be less than at present. The inspection cost would increase, admits Mr. Leisen, and the revenue would not increase-but the pumpage would be materially decreased, affecting a saving in coal and the danger of immediate need of new sources of supply would be put off. The present consumption is 170 gallons per capita and Mr. Leisen says that 50 gallons of this is avoidable waste. A new chlorine purifying plant is to be installed.”

1011 Main Break NYCFebruary 11, 1915: Municipal Journal article. Burst Main Floods New York Theatre Section. New York, N. Y.-“The bursting of a 30-inch main near the heart of the theatre district broke up the pavement in several blocks, put many passers-by in danger and flooded the basements of all the buildings in the area. The lights were put out and the residents of the section were forced to vacate the houses by the police because of danger of undermining. Traffic was suspended. By turning off the mains and then turning them on the broken one was finally discovered. Commissioner Woods and Inspector Dwyer were in charge of the police. Thirty men from the Department of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity under Merrit T. Smith, chief engineer, and Engineer Byrne ripped up the streets to locate the exact spot of the break. Damage to the flooded cellars is estimated at about $100,000.”

Reference: Municipal Journal 38:6(February 11, 1915): 194.

#TDIWH—February 10, 1990: Perrier Water Recalled

0210 PerrierFebruary 10, 1990: New York Times headline— Perrier Recalls Its Water in U.S. After Benzene Is Found in Bottles. by George James “The company that made bottled mineral water chic is voluntarily recalling its entire inventory of Perrier from store shelves throughout the United States after tests showed the presence of the chemical benzene in a small sample of bottles.

The impurity was discovered in North Carolina by county officials who so prized the purity of Perrier that they used it as a standard in tests of other water supplies.

The Food and Drug Administration said it is testing supplies in California and other states. In a written statement issued last night, Ronald V. Davis, president of the Perrier Group of America Inc., said there was no significant health risk to the public. But the statement did not go into the details of the recall, how it would work, the number of bottles to be recalled and the impact on a company that has built its success on its product’s image of purity and stylishness.

William M. Grigg, a spokesman for the Food and Drug Administration, said his agency’s Hazard Evaluation Board had collected samples of Perrier and found no immediate risk to the public from the benzene in the water.”