March 30, 1911: Death of Ellen Swallow Richards. “Ellen Swallow Richards is perhaps best known as MIT’s first female graduate and instructor, but launching coeducation at the Institute is merely the first in a long list of her pioneering feats. The breadth and depth of her career are astounding; a 1910 tribute in La Follette’s Weekly Magazine professed that ‘when one attempts to tell of the enterprises, apart from her formal teaching, of which Mrs. Richards has been a part or the whole, he is lost in a bewildering maze.’ Authors and scholars have called her the founder of ecology, the first female environmental engineer, and the founder of home economics. Richards opened the first laboratory for women, created the world’s first water purity tables, developed the world standard for evaporation tests on volatile oils, conducted the first consumer-product tests, and discovered a new method to determine the amount of nickel in ore. And that’s just the short list of her accomplishments. In a nod to Richards’s remarkable knowledge and interests, her sister-in-law called her ‘Ellencyclopedia….’
Richards’s research on water quality was even more far-reaching. In 1887 [William R.] Nichols’s successor [Thomas M. Drown] put her in charge of implementing an extensive sanitary survey of Massachusetts inland waters, again for the board of health. The two-year study was unprecedented in scope. Richards supervised the collection and analysis of 40,000 water samples from all over the state–representing the water supply for 83 percent of the population. She personally conducted at least part of the analysis on each sample; the entire study involved more than 100,000 analyses. In the process, she developed new laboratory equipment and techniques, meticulously documenting her findings. Instead of merely recording the analysis data, she marked each day’s results on a state map–and noticed a pattern. By plotting the amount of chlorine in the samples geographically, she produced the famous Normal Chlorine Map, an indicator of the extent of man-made pollution in the state. The survey produced her pioneering water purity tables and led to the first water quality standards in the United States. Her biographer, Caroline Hunt, contends that the study was Richards’s greatest contribution to public health.”
Commentary: There is a rich body of information about the life Ellen Swallow Richards. A video on YouTube with ESR expert Joyce B. Miles narrating is particularly interesting. Below is the Normal Chlorine Map from a book by Ellen Swallow Richards. It shows that chloride concentrations in ground and surface waters increase as one nears the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean. Any significant deviations from the “normal” levels of chloride in a water source indicated sewage contamination.
Reference: Durant, Elizabeth. (2007). “Ellencyclopedia.” MIT Technology Review. August 15, 2007.
March 30, 1827: The Common Council of the city of Detroit passed an ordinance, which granted the right to supply the City with water to Rufus Wells. Wells expanded the modest waterworks in place into a system that supplied the City until 1850. “Wells’ water works was located on Berthelet’s wharf and featured two horse-driven pumps, which raised water into a 40-gallon cask on top of the pump house. Water flowed by gravity into Detroit’s first reservoir – a four-by-four foot structure filled to a depth of six feet, with a capacity of 9,580 imperial gallons – located on the corner of Jefferson and Randolph. Water was then distributed to residents through the city’s first water mains.
Detroit families paid a uniform annual rate of $10 for service in 1827. Commercial customers were charged more. Woodworth’s Hotel, the largest user, paid $40 per year. The billing system begun by Wells evolved into a quarterly customer billing system still used today.”
Reference: Daisy, Michael (ed.) no date. “Detroit Water and Sewerage Department: The First 300 Years.” http://dwsd.org/downloads_n/about_dwsd/history/complete_history.pdf (Accessed November 23, 2013).