Tag Archives: filtration

December 15, 2014: Death of Ken Kerri; 1989: Cabool, Missouri Outbreak; 1909: Water Quality Stories; 1909: Filtration Definitions

December 15, 2014:Dr. Ken Kerri, the founder of the Office of Water Programs, passed on the morning of December 15, 2014. The academic community and the water industry were made better by his energetic contributions over the course of 50 years. Professor Ken Kerri was a faculty member in the Department of Civil Engineering at California State University, Sacramento, for almost 40 years before retiring from teaching in 1997. During his teaching career, Ken mentored hundreds of civil engineering students, and both the students and faculty have recognized his special contributions by awarding him many distinguished honors.

In 1972, Professor Kerri was a pioneer in establishing the Office of Water Programs, which is now recognized as the leading national training program for the operators and managers of drinking water and wastewater plants and facilities. Over one million operator and manager training manuals have been sold throughout the world, and some have been translated into many foreign languages. Because of Ken’s tireless efforts, this unique training program brings special recognition to the university. As Emeritus Professor of Civil Engineering, Ken continued to be active with the Office of Water Programs, as chief project consultant, further developing the catalog of training materials and looking for opportunities to expand services.

Dr. Kerri also continued to be active in many professional organizations and received numerous awards in recognition of his outstanding service to the profession. In August 2014, the Water Environment Federation inducted Dr. Kerri into the WEF Fellows Program in the category of Education/Research. He was also the recipient of the Distinguished Faculty Award by the Sacramento State Alumni Association. As part of his legacy to the university community, he leaves the Ken Kerri Endowment Fund, which will continue to honor a lifetime of achievement and contribution to the field of civil engineering by a man who was deeply committed to and energetic about his lifelong, professional endeavors.”

E. coli O157:H7

December 15, 1989:Cabool, Missouri outbreak of E. coliO157:H7. “Case patients were residents of or visitors to Burdine Township [adjacent to Cabool, Missouri] with bloody diarrhea or diarrhea and abdominal cramps occurring between 15 December 1989 and 20 January 1990…. Among the 243 case patients, 86 had bloody stools, 32 were hospitalized, 4 died, and 2 had the hemolytic uremic syndrome. In the case-control study, no food was associated with illness, but ill persons had drunk more municipal water than had controls (P = 0.04). The survey showed that, during the peak of the outbreak, bloody diarrhea was 18.2 times more likely to occur in persons living inside the city and using municipal water than in persons living outside the city and using private well water (P = 0.001). Shortly before the peak of the outbreak, 45 water meters were replaced, and two water mains ruptured. The number of new cases declined rapidly after residents were ordered to boil water and after chlorination of the water supply. This was the largest outbreak of ECO157 infections [at the time], the first due to a multiply resistant organism, and the first shown to be transmitted by water.”

Commentary:  One of the largest outbreaks of waterborne disease in the U.S. in modern times. E. coliO157:H7 was just being recognized as a waterborne pathogen. A significant outbreak in Walkerton, Ontario, Canadain 2000 was caused by the same pathogen.

References:  Swerdlow, D.L. et al. 1992. “A waterborne outbreak in Missouri of Escherichia coliO157:H7 associated with bloody diarrhea and death.” Ann Intern Med.117(10):(Nov 15): 812-9.

Geldreich, E.E., et al. 1992. “Searching for a water supply connection in the Cabool, Missouri disease outbreak of Escherichia coli0157:H7.” Water Research. 26:8 1127-37.

December 15, 1909:  Municipal Journal and Engineerarticles about water supply and water quality in the early 20thcentury.

Well Water is Cause of Typhoid Epidemic. Concordia, Kan.-The source of typhoid infection in this city has been located in the well water that has been used by the people in the infected block. All of the families in which a case of the fever has developed have been using well water for drinking purposes. The doctors attending the cases are of the opinion that the city water is free from typhoid fever germs.

Tannic Acid in City Water.Knoxville, Tenn.-.Members of the Knoxville Water Commission are somewhat disturbed over the impurities now found in the Tennessee river water owing largely to the refuse of a tannery which .is being poured into the French Broad river at Newport. At times the water coming out of the French Broad is almost black, owing to the tannic acid. This is killing the fish in the river and it is thought the water with this impurity in it is deleterious to health….Local sportsmen, who are interested in the preservation of the game fish in the river, have also taken the matter up. Commentary:  This is an early concern about surface water quality that was not related to human health.

Proposed Tunnel Profile

Water Tunnel Under New York City.New York, N. Y.-The Board of Estimates has adopted plans for building a $30,000,000 tunnel in solid rock under Manhattan Island to distribute the water supply from the Catskill system, The report of a committee of engineers to whom the matter has been referred was that the original pipe line plan would cost $10,000,000, whereas the new tunnel plan would cost $25,000,000 or more. However, there is estimated to be a saving in the cost of connecting mains amounting to 50 per cent. The tunnel is to be 17 ½, miles long beginning at Hill View Reservoir, north of the New York City line at an elevation of -20, where the diameter will be 17 ½, feet. Through the city the elevation will range from -140 to -600, according to the solidity of the rock through which it goes. Under the East River, where the tunnel crosses to Brooklyn, the diameter will be 11 feet.

Commentary:  This was the first of three tunnels built by New York City for water supply—a unique and impressive engineering marvel.

Will Try Chemical Purification.Hartford, Conn.-Engineer E. M. Peck of the Water Department has been authorized by the Board to conduct experiments in the chemical purification of river water, to see if it can be made safe for use in the lower part of the city, should the supply in the reservoirs fail. This is the chemical treatment used at Harrisburg, which city the engineer, President Henry Roberts and Secretary Fred D. Berry recently visited.

Commentary:  Dr. John L. Lealwas hired by the city to conduct these studies. He presented his findings to the water department on March 28, 1910.

Reference:  Municipal Journal and Engineer. 1909. 27:24(December 15, 1909): 896-7.

Slow Sand Filters At Portsmouth, UK 1927

December 15, 1909:  Municipal Journal and Engineerarticle–Mechanical Water Filtration. “There are two general classes of water filtration. In one of these a large part of the purification is performed by bacteria, the process involving a slow passage of the water through sand or a similar fine-grained mass [slow sand filtration]. In this there is practically no pressure head, but the water simply trickles through the interstices, although in a greater or less time a collection of mud and fibrous and other organic matter collects on the surface and a slight head of water is necessary for forcing the water to be purified through this material. This was the method of purification originally adopted in England, and is sometimes called the English method.

In mechanical filtration [rapid sand filtration or granular media filtration] the water is passed under greater pressure and at much higher rates of speed through sand or similar material, and the purification is entirely one of straining. Owing to the high speed, however, and the absence of any mat on the surface, it is found necessary to introduce a coagulant into the water before it reaches the filter. This coagulant collects together the suspended matters in the water, including a large percentage of the bacteria, and the suspended matter thus coagulated is strained out by the filter….

The mechanical filters were apparently so named because of the entirely mechanical nature of the purification as distinguished from bacteriological, and because of the fact that the entire apparatus was, in effect, a mechanism of iron and steel, while the English filters consisted of outdoor beds of sand simply retained by earthen banks or stone walls.”

Reference: “Mechanical Water Filtration.” 1909. Municipal Journal and Engineer,27:24(December 15, 1909): 893.

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December 9, 1785: Albert Stein Born; 1832: William J. Magie Dies

December 9, 1785: Birth of Albert Stein in Dusseldorf, Prussia.  In Richmond, Virginia, Albert Stein was responsible for building the first slow sand filter in the U.S. for municipal supply. “Albert Stein was born in Dusseldorf, Prussia, December 9, 1785. After being educated as a civil engineer, he began work on a topographical survey of the Rhenish Provinces. In 1807, he was appointed hydraulic engineer by Murat, then Grand Duke of Berg by the favor of Napoleon I, whose cavalry had been led by Murat. After the fall of Napoleon and the cession of the duchy to Prussia, Stein resigned his position and came to America. He reached Philadelphia in 1816, where he seems to have had some relation with Frederic Graff, Chief Engineer of the Philadelphia Water Works. In 1817, Stein submitted plans for a water works at Cincinnati. About that time, also, he made surveys for a canal from Cincinnati to Dayton. For a few years beginning in 1824 he was engineer for deepening the tidal section of the Appomattox River at and below Petersburg, Va. He was engineer for water works at Lynchburg, Va., in 1828-30. While building the Richmond [filtration] works, Stein designed for Nashville, Tenn., a water works which was completed in 1832. In the period 1834-40, Stein was at New Orleans, building a reservoir for the water works there, a canal from the city to Lake Pontchartrain, and making a survey and plan for the improvement of the Southwest Pass of the Mississippi. In 1840 he leased a small, privately owned water works system at Mobile, Ala., which he improved and operated. He died July 26, 1874, on his estate at Spring Hill near Mobile.”

Reference:  Baker, Moses N. 1981. The Quest for Pure Water: the History of Water Purification from the Earliest Records to the Twentieth Century. 2nd Edition. Vol. 1. Denver, Co.: American Water Works Association, 130.

Jersey City Chlorination Facility at Boonton Reservoir

December 9, 1832:  Birth of William J. Magie. William J. Magie was selected by Vice Chancellor Frederic W. Stevens to hear the second part of the Jersey City trials.  In 1899, Jersey City, New Jersey contracted for the construction of a new water supply on the Rockaway River. The water supply included a dam, reservoir and 23-mile pipeline and was completed on May 4, 1904. City officials were not pleased with the project as delivered by the private water company and filed a lawsuit in the Chancery Court of New Jersey. The second trial was devoted, in part, to a determination of whether chlorine could be used to make the water pure and wholesome before it was delivered to Jersey City.

One might assume that someone relatively junior might be appointed as the Special Master to hear the highly technical and excruciatingly long arguments from both sides of the case.  Not so.  William Jay Magie was one of the most revered judges of this time period.  He took the role of Special Master in 1908 after completing 8 years as Chancellor of the Court of Chancery.  Prior to that, he was a member of the New Jersey Senate (1876-1878), Associate Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court (1880-1897) and Chief Justice of the same court from 1897 to 1900.

“As a trial judge his cases were handled with notable success, as he had ample experience in trying causes before juries and a just appreciation of the worth of human testimony…” Judge Magie needed all of his powers of appreciation of human testimony in the second trial, which boiled down to which of the expert witnesses could be believed when both sides marshaled some of the most eminent doctors and engineers in the land.

Judge Magie was born on December 9, 1832 in Elizabeth, New Jersey and lived his life in that town.  He graduated from Princeton College in 1852 and studied law under an attorney in Elizabeth.  He was admitted to the bar of New Jersey in 1856.  At the time of the second trial in 1908 he was 76 years old and near the end of his distinguished career.

Magie’s key ruling in the second trial was captured in the following quote:  “I do therefore find and report that this device is capable of rendering the water delivered to Jersey City, pure and wholesome, for the purposes for which it is intended, and is effective in removing from the water those dangerous germs which were deemed by the decree to possibly exist therein at certain times.”

References:

McGuire, Michael J. 2013. The Chlorine Revolution: Water Disinfection and the Fight to Save Lives. Denver, CO:American Water Works Association.

Magie, William J. 1910. In Chancery of New Jersey: Between the Mayor and Aldermen of Jersey City, Complainant, and the Jersey City Water Supply Co., Defendant. Report for Hon. W.J. Magie, special master on cost of sewers, etc., and on efficiency of sterilization plant at Boonton. (Case Number 27/475-Z-45-314): 1–15. Jersey City, N.J.: Press Chronicle Co.

December 1, 1902: Leal Report to RI Board of Health; 1909: Philadelphia Typhoid Fight

Dr. John L. Leal

December 1, 1902: Letter to Rhode Island State Board of Health. Dr. John L. Lealwas hired by the Bristol [Rhode Island] and Warren Water Company after the Rhode Island State Board of Health severely criticized them about the sanitary quality of their water supply.

“Gentlemen: We hand you herewith a report upon the sanitary condition of the water supply of this company, of which we wrote you in our letter of October 10th.

This report was prepared by Dr. John L. Leal, and embodies the findings and conclusions of Prof. J.H. Appleton, Prof. F.P. Gorham, and Dr. F.T. Fulton, who, as well as Dr. Leal, made a thorough examination of the water in question and its sources.

John L. Leal, M.D., of Paterson, N.J., A.B., A.M., Princeton; ex-health officer of Paterson, N.J. (for thirteen years); Sanitary Adviser to the East Jersey Water Company (the largest [private] water company in America) and of the Montclair and of the New York & New Jersey Water Companies; President, New Jersey State Sanitary Association, etc., etc., is, we feel, an expert who, you will agree with us, is entirely competent to pass upon the subject at hand….

The findings conclusively establish, as Dr. Leal states in closing his report, that the conditions of the water and the water sheds “do not in any way justify the action of the Board of Health.”

We therefore request that your Board shall, in justice to ourselves and in the interest of those who take our water, withdraw as promptly as may be its recent recommendation to the town of Bristol, and take such other steps as will, as far as possible, make the effect caused by the unwarranted attack made by your Board in its action of October 3rd, upon the sanitary quality of the water and the water sheds of this company. Respectfully, George H. Norman, President.”

Reference: Twentieth-Fifth Annual Report of the State Board of Health, of the State of Rhode Island. 1910.  (for the year ending December 31, 1902). Providence, RI:E. L. Freeman Co., 262-3.

Upper Roxborough Filters, with sand in place but before water was let in, 1903.

December 1, 1909:  An excellent summary of aggressive municipal measures to eradicate typhoid fever from a major city. Municipal Journal and Engineer. Philadelphia Wars on Typhoid. “In an address at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, Dr. A. C. Abbott, Director of the Hygienic Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania, and former Chief of the Bureau of Health, drew some striking comparisons between the present mortality rate from typhoid fever in Philadelphia and that which existed five years ago. In that time, he declared, by simple municipal measures, such as water filtration, strict supervision of the milk supply, and the cleaning up of river banks, the number of cases of typhoid fever had been reduced by fully 8o percent. Nearly one-half of the remaining cases are imported from other places by Philadelphians returning from their vacations. Still stricter regulation of dairies, the thorough disinfection of all sewage refuse, and, most important of all, the greatest personal care in the treatment of typhoid patients were urged as sure preventives of the disease. The use of uncooked vegetables raised on land fertilized with unsterilized sewage; the eating of raw oysters, not cleanly washed or handled, and the fly pest, which was characterized as a ‘filthy, intolerable nuisance, a disgrace to our civilization,’ were emphasized by Dr. Abbott as easily avoidable causes of the spread of typhoid. Vaccination, as a means of becoming immune to the disease, was described as entirely practicable and effective.”

Reference: Municipal Journal and Engineer. 1909. 27:22(December 1, 1909): 826.

November 28, 1837: Birth of John Wesley Hyatt.

November 28, 1837: Birth of John Wesley Hyatt. Hyatt was an inventor who developed new materials and machines that resulted in hundreds of patents. He is mostly known for his invention of a commercially viable way of producing solid, stable nitrocellulose, which he patented in the United States in 1869 as “Celluloid.” However, he was one of the early developers of commercial filtration systems in the U.S. He invented improvements to mechanical filtration systems, which are called rapid sand filters or granular media filters today. During the 1880s, mechanical filters were installed to remove particles and “organic matter.” Filtration to control microbial pathogens would come later with better bacteriological methods and the maturation of the germ theory of disease.

“John Hyatt, an inventor and manufacturer of Newark, N.J., applied for a patent February 11, 1881, on what was virtually a stack of Clark’s filters, placed in a closed tank and operated each independently of the others by means of common supply, delivery and wash pipes. His application, like Clark’s, was granted on June 21, 1881, and assigned to the Newark Filtering Co. On the same day, Hyatt obtained a patent in England.

Col. L. H. Gardner, Superintendent of the New Orleans Water Co., after making small-scale experiments on coagulation at New Orleans, was convinced that it was more efficacious than filtration for the clarification of muddy water.

Isaiah Smith Hyatt, older brother of John, while acting as sales agent for the Newark Filtering Co., was baffled in attempts to clarify Mississippi River water for a New Orleans industrial plant. Colonel Gardner suggested using a coagulant. This was a success. Isaiah Hyatt obtained on February 19, 1884, a patent on simultaneous coagulation-filtration. Although unsound in principle, it largely dominated mechanical filtration for many years….

Thus in 1880-85 did four men join in the evolution of mechanical or rapid filtration. Clark soon faded out of the picture. Gardner entered it only by suggesting to Isaiah Hyatt the use of a coagulant, and Isaiah Hyatt, still a young man, died in March 1885. John Hyatt was then alone. Already he had taken out 20 filter patents while only two were granted to his older brother. By the close of 1889, John had obtained about 50 patents. Scattered grants in the 1890’s brought his record above 60. Most notable of all these were three on washing systems, including sectional wash; several on strainers for underdrain systems; and two on aeration, primarily in connection with filtration. The Hyatt aeration patents, like those granted to Professor Albert R. Leeds a little earlier, were of little practical importance, but they marked an era in water purification during which stress was laid on the removal of organic matter.”

Reference: Baker, Moses N. (1981). The Quest for Pure Water: the History of Water Purification from the Earliest Records to the Twentieth Century. 2nd Edition. Vol. 1. Denver: American Water Works Association, 183-5.

October 31, 1908: Lakes and Demons; 1885: Death of John Baylis

October 31, 1908He woke up with a start when Boomer let out a howl. “Darn,” he thought, “I must have fallen asleep.” He looked around and saw the sun starting to set. He scratched his chin wondering what would have made him sleep the day away like that. As he sat, bewildered, he noticed his fishing pole, next to him, hadn’t been used at all. Just then, Boomer sprang to the other side of the boat and let out another long howl. “What is with you, dog?” he snapped, but Boomer didn’t stop. Boomer started clawing at the wood on the side of the boat. Confused by these strange actions, the man peered over the edge of the boat.

In the water, just below the surface, was a woman’s face staring up at him. Her beauty startled him. So enthralled was he, that it took longer than it should have for him to realize that she seemed in no distress being under water. The soothing sound of the rippling water had lulled him into a false sense of contentment. As he reached down to the woman, hoping to help her out, the water sprang up and surrounded him pulling him into a pool of darkness. He was gone before he had any thought of saving himself. Boomer sat at the edge of the boat growling at the water demon that had emerged from the deep. The hypnotic face in the water grinned knowing her secret was still safe.

“I’ll take it!” the man exclaimed to the Land Agent. He turned and removed his bowler hat to hide the smile that wanted to escape. He had just made a corker of a deal for the cabin at the lake. He knew he would be happy here—living with nature and so close to the fishing. He had heard the lake whispering his name the first time he saw it. Yep, there was something about the lake that kept calling him back….

Author’s Note:The skeleton of the story was taken from Ghost Stories 5 and rewritten.

October 31, 1963:  Death of John R. Baylis. “John Robert Baylis (1885–1963) was an American chemist and sanitary engineer. His career extended from about 1905 to 1963 and he is best known for his work in applied research to improve drinking water purification.

Baylis was born in rural Mississippi (Eastabuchie, Jones County) but lived most of his adult life in northern U.S. states. He attended Mississippi State College where he received his bachelor of science degree in 1905. He also received training as a railroad engineer and as a construction engineer for water and sewage plants.

Baylis’s first professional assignment (about 1905) was as manager of the Jackson, MS water works. In 1917 he was hired as a bacteriologist at the Montebello Filter Plant in Baltimore, MD. His tenure there was only nine years and when he left he was the principal sanitary chemist with the department. During his employment at Baltimore he developed a pH meter based on a tungsten wire. The Baltimore water treatment plant was one of the first to use pH for process control. About 1927, he moved his family to Chicago where he was put in charge of water purification research for the city. His job title was chemist, but he developed many of the advances in water treatment during the 1930s and 1940s. These advances included:

  • Preventing corrosion of pipes
  • Filter bed cleaning with a fixed-grid surface wash system
  • Developing activated silica as a coagulant aid
  • Invention of a low-level turbidimeter
  • Initiation of lime use for pH adjustment
  • Pioneering the development of high rate filtration (2 to 5 gallons per minute/square foot)
  • Building an experimental treatment facility to study water purification methods
  • Understanding the causes and cures of taste and odor problems in drinking water

In 1938, Baylis was put in charge of the design of the South District Filtration Plant, which was completed in 1943. He was in charge of the operation of the plant and was named engineer of water purification in 1942, which he held until his death.

In 1935, he wrote a book entitled Elimination of Taste and Odor in Water. The work became a classic in the field of sanitary engineering and paved the way for others to control taste and odor problems. The book goes into some detail on how and where to feed powdered activated carbon (PAC) for taste and odor control.

Perhaps his greatest achievement was the development of PAC. Up until Baylis’s work, activated carbon was only available in granular form which was used in a filtration mode. PAC could be formed into a slurry and fed like any other chemical into the treatment process. He received a U.S. patent for PAC as well as for other water treatment advances.

Baylis was one of the first sanitary engineers to raise concerns about open finished water reservoirs. On November 3, 1938, he testified at a public service commission hearing in Milwaukee. He called the open Kilburn park reservoir a “source of danger” to the health of the city. Baylis said that “…the reservoir should be roofed to prevent pollution from birds, insects, rodents, small animals, dirt, soot, leaves and other debris which he said was in the open water.” It would take many decades before his concerns were codified into a USEPA regulation that deals specifically with this danger to human health.

October 22, 1914: Trenton Water Treatment Plant

October 22, 1914: Municipal Journalfeature article–Water Purification at Trenton. “For fifteen years the improvement of the public water supply at Trenton, N.J., which was drawn from the Delaware River without treatment, has been a question that has received much consideration. Johnson and Fuller, consulting engineers, of New York City, who were retained to design a plant, in 1912 presented plans for rapid sand filters with a capacity of 30,000,000 gallons per day. This plant is now practically completed….For several years past, the typhoid death rate in Trenton has shown the need of a modern filtration plant. The average death rate from that cause for the ten years ending 1900 was 28 [per 100,000 people], while for the years 1908, 1909 and 1910 it was 54, 36 and 53, respectively. In 1911 the use of hypochlorite was adopted and was effective in reducing the typhoid death rate, but the unfiltered water is very unsatisfactory, especially in appearance. The plant, which is located at the foot of Calhoun street, just above the present pumping works, consists of covered sedimentation basins, sixteen filters, a clear water basin, a low-lift pumping plant, a head house, conduits and complete filter equipment.”

Reference: “Water Purification at Trenton.” Municipal Journal. 37:17 (October 22, 1914): 589-91.

Commentary:  There were people in Trenton who opposed any move to treat the disease-laden water from the Delaware River. It is incomprehensible that they resisted all attempts. Below is an excerpt from my book The Chlorine Revolution:  Water Disinfection and the Fight To Save Lives.

“Trenton, the capital of New Jersey, was home to about 97,000 citizens in 1911. The city’s water source was the Delaware River, which had been grossly contaminated with sewage for decades. Typhoid fever was ever-present in the city, and occasionally epidemics broke out, causing much higher death rates. The typhoid fever death rate during 1902–1911 ranged from 26.2 to 84.3 per 100,000 people, with an average of 49.7 per 100,000.

Despite the water supply’s wholesale killing of Trenton’s citizens, there was tremendous opposition to installing filtration or any other kind of effective treatment. Outstanding treatment experts such as Allen Hazen and George Warren Fuller prepared two separate designs for filtration plants, both of which languished without being implemented. Finally, the New Jersey Board of Health had had enough. In early 1910, the board issued a “compulsory order” for Trenton to treat its water supply and made the order effective shortly thereafter, on June 15. The Trenton Water Board began to install a chloride of lime feed system, but, incredibly, the local health board vetoed the plan. Wasting no time, the New Jersey Board of Health filed a lawsuit shortly after the June 15 deadline to compel the city to move forward with its plans.”

Even after all of this, it would still take a long time to get filtration and disinfection into place.

October 1, 1896: Standpipe Failure; 1896: Philadelphia Filtration; 1913: Water Year Start

October 1, 1896Engineering Newsarticle. A Stand-Pipe Failure at Garden City, Kan. “Sir: A brief note in regard to the failure of the Garden City stand-pipe, another addition to the already large number of failures of these structures, may be of interest to the readers of Engineering News.

This stand-pipe was built by Palmer & Son, of Kansas City, Mo. It was located about one-fourth mile from the Arkansas River, and a few feet above its bed. It was 10 ft. in diameter, 130 ft. high, and was supported on a masonry foundation on a level with the surface of the ground…

About four years after erection a crack appeared on the west side of the pipe, in the angle iron connecting the bottom to the first course. This was soldered but continued to leak and about 21/2 years before the failure a new piece of angle, about 5 ft. long, was put in. Four of the six brackets had their legs broken about this time, and were repaired by bolting to them a strap of iron which passed down around the anchor bolt.

On April 30, 1896, during a very high wind from the northwest, estimated to have a velocity of 60 to 70 miles per hour, with occasional gusts of 90 miles, and which wrecked many of the windmills in this vicinity, a crack appeared on the north aide of the bottom angle iron. This crack increased in size for 11/4 hours, until it was 5 ft. long, with the water rushing out rapidly. Suddenly the angle iron to which the north guy was fastened gave way and the pipe blew over in the southwest direction. The pipe was about one-fourth full at the time of failure with both pumps delivering into it at nearly their full capacity.

The bottom angle iron broke at the angle all the way around except where the new piece was put in, where the first course failed along the rivets. All the brackets were broken, and the bottom was broken somewhat at its center around the entrance pipe.

It seems quite clear that the failure was due to three causes: (1) The weakness in the angle iron connecting the bottom and first course; (2) to the brackets not being long and strong enough; and (3) to the fastening of the guys being weak.

  1. C. Murphy, Hydrographer U. S. Geological Survey.”

Commentary:  Sometimes we need to remember our failures as well as our successes. It was through an analysis of these failures that eventually water standpipes were properly designed and constructed in the U.S.

October 1, 1896Engineering Newsarticle. Filtration of the Philadelphia Water Supply. “A vigorous crusade against the further use of Schuylkill River water, without filtration, is being led by the Woman’s Health Protective Association of Philadelphia, and the subject is being actively discussed by the press of that city. All admit that the present supply is impure, and that the water from this river is blackened with coal dustor made yellow by mud at every high stage In the river, and that it is liable to contamination from six cities upon its banks above Philadelphia, whose aggregate population Is 350,000. An entirely new supply, from a distant source of permanent purity, is undoubtedly the most attractive solution to the difficult problem presented, and for years put extensive surveys and investigations have been made with that end in view. But the enormous cost of such an undertaking, coupled with the lack of available means in the City Treasury and the disinclination to permit a private company to control the water supply of Philadelphia, have so far prevented any of the many projects of this sort which have been brought forward from being carried out.

Filtration has been often suggested, in Philadelphia. Several years ago certain parties backed by the city press, seriously recommended the location of filter-beds or filter-galleries In the River Schuylkill itself, an absurd scheme, which was dropped as soon as computations were made of the area required for the quantity of water to be filtered, the cost of construction, and the difficulties and risks of maintenance. But since the success of sand filtration as a means of purification of water has become generally understood, the intelligent citizens of Philadelphia have become strongly in favor of the construction of a system of filter beds. Our readers will recall that an appropriation to build a single filter-bed was before the Philadelphia Councils some months ago, and was only defeated by a close vote.

Recently the agitation for filtration has been started anew by the publication of a report upon the project of filtering the city’s water supply made to the Woman’s Health Protective Association by Mr. Allen Hazen, of the firm of Hazen & Noyes, of Boston.”

Commentary:  This article is important for several reasons. It highlights the struggle to choose between finding a “pure” upland source of water versus treating water supplies that were available locally. The fact that a citizens group got involved and hired Allen Hazenis notable. In the late 1890s, hundreds of cities were dealing with the same problem—contaminated water supplies. However, most of them did nothing for a long period of time and many people died. Philadelphia had a lot of trouble getting the political muscle organized to make it happen. An excellent websitecreated by the Water Department historian highlights the struggle over filter construction. “Between 1900 and 1911, Philadelphia built a system of five [slow] sand filtration plants on high ground along the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers…Costing $28 million, the filtration system was the largest public works project in the city up to that time and the largest filtration works in the world.”

Reference: Engineering News. 36:14(October 1, 1896): 218-9.

October 1, 1913:  October 1 is the first day of a water year. “A water year is term commonly used in hydrology to describe a time period of 12 months. It is defined as the period between October 1st of one year and September 30th of the next. The water year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. (the year within which 9 of the 12 months fall). Thus the 2010 water year started on October 1, 2009 and ended on September 30, 2010. Use of water year as a standard follows the US national water supply data publishing system that was started in 1913. This time interval is often used by hydrologists because hydrological systems in the northern hemisphere are typically at their lowest levels near October 1. The increased temperatures and generally drier weather patterns of summer give way to cooler temperatures, which decreases evaporation rates. Rain and snow replenish surface water supplies.”