Tag Archives: influenza

February 1, 1919: Influenza in New York State and Reservoir Maintenance

Policemen in Seattle wearing masks made by the Red Cross, during the influenza epidemic. December 1918.

February 1, 1919:Article in Municipal Journal. Declares Influenza Cause Is Unknown. “Albany, N. Y.-According to a statement by Dr. Hermann M. Biggs, state commissioner of health, in this state in the month of October alone approximately 32,000 lives were lost, while in the country as a whole 400,000 people are believed to have died of so-called influenza during the months of September, October and November. “It is questionable,” says the statement, “if any recorded epidemic has produced in a similar space of time such disastrous results, yet, despite the efforts of an army of research workers both here and abroad, the definite causative agent of the disease remains today unknown. Until proof to the contrary is forthcoming it must be assumed that the epidemic represented a very virulent form of the same disease which has spread throughout the world from time to time for many centuries, and numerous excellent records of which are available for study in medical literature. At the present time there is no exact diagnostic procedure which may be relied upon positively to differentiate epidemic influenza from severe ‘colds’ accompanied by fever, cough and prostration, and frequently followed by pneumonia, such colds being due to a variety of well-known organisms. Nevertheless there are certain fairly characteristic symptoms in typical cases of epidemic influenza which at present justify a clinical diagnosis of that disease.”

Commentary:  While influenza is not transmitted by water, the occurrence of articles like this in the engineering literature of the times shows how devastating the disease was in the U.S.

February 1, 1919:Article in Municipal Journal. Waterworks Operation—Reservoir Maintenance. Drawing Off Foul Bottom Water-Removing Vegetation from Exposed Bottom-Preventing and Destroying Algae. “Water in reservoirs in the great majority of cases improves in character by standing, suspended matters settling out and pathogenic bacteria (if any are present) settling with the heavier matters or dying in a few days. Color, also, generally fades out gradually. Part of the improvement is due to oxygen from the air and to sunlight, and the effects of these do not penetrate to any great depth; consequently it is desirable that there be a vertical circulation that will bring to the surface in succession water from all depths. ‘On the other hand, violent circulation or rapid motion will interfere with purification by sedimentation….

Water more than 15 or 20 feet deep is seldom stirred by wind, and any organic matter which may collect below this depth, receiving little oxygen from above, putrefies; color in the water’ at this depth is not bleached; and in general this deep water may become foul, dark colored and ill-smelling unless it receives little or no organic matter to produce such conditions.

In the autumn, the surface water cools more and more as the average air temperature falls, and finally becomes cooler and consequently heavier than the water at the bottom and settles to and displaces such bottom water, forcing it to the top, bringing the accumulated pollution with it. This fall “overturn” often causes this foul water to enter the supply mains.”

Reference:  Municipal Journal. 46:5(February 1, 1919): 86-7, 92-3.

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December 28, 1918: Minneapolis Filtration; 1918: Influenza Pandemic

Water filtration beds at the original filtration plant at Columbia Heights.

December 28, 1918:  Municipal Journalarticle—Water Filtration at Minneapolis. “The Minneapolis water filtration plantconsists of a 7.5-million-gallon sedimentation basin, four coagulation basins, sixteen filter beds. and a 45-million-gallon covered clear-water reservoir. The water is treated with sulphate of alumina, thoroughly mixed and coagulated and allowed to settle, after which it is filtered by rapid sand filters. After filtration it is treated with chlorine gas. It is planned to provide a plant for softening the water which will involve the construction of appliances for softening, filtration and semi-direct pumping of the water….

Some interesting figures on the effect of the use of filtered water upon the health of the community are reported. For thirteen years prior to the filtration of the city supply (which went into service in 1913), the average death rate from typhoid fever per 100,000 population was 31. Since the city began using filtered water, the rate has been reduced to an average of 9, the rate for 1916 having been 5 per 100,000. The book value or cost of the filtration plant is given as $963,709.”

December 28, 1918:  Municipal Journalarticle—To Investigate Cost of Influenza. “Harrisburg, Pa.-An investigation is to be conducted by the state department of health into the cost of the epidemic of influenza, which has taken 47,000 lives. Dr. B. Franklin Royer, acting state health commissioner, has announced that every phase of the social and economic cost of the disease will be surveyed. Doctor Royer has sent letters to men and women in charge of the work of fighting the epidemic in various parts of the state and asked that the information desired be returned at once to the department. ‘Professor J. P. Lichtenberger, of the Wharton School of Finance, of the University of Pennsylvania’ he said, ‘has been engaged by the department to undertake this work, and a large corps of clerks, stenographers and other officers of the state department of health have been designated to cooperate in gathering the data….’” Commentary:  In the midst of a national construction push for more filtration plants, the U.S. was devastated by the influenza pandemic. It has been estimated that 500,000 to 675,000 people died in the U.S. alone and 20 to 50 million people worldwide.

Reference: “Water Filtration at Minneapolis.” Municipal Journal. 45:26(December 18, 1918): 502-4.

February 1, 1919: Influenza in New York State and Reservoir Maintenance

February 1, 1919: Article in Municipal Journal. Declares Influenza Cause Is Unknown. “Albany, N. Y.-According to a statement by Dr. Hermann M. Biggs, state commissioner of health, in this state in the month of October alone approximately 32,000 lives were lost, while in the country as a whole 400,000 people are believed to have died of so-called influenza during the months of September, October and November. “It is questionable,” says the statement, “if any recorded epidemic has produced in a similar space of time such disastrous results, yet, despite the efforts of an army of research workers both here and abroad, the definite causative agent of the disease remains today unknown. Until proof to the contrary is forthcoming it must be assumed that the epidemic represented a very virulent form of the same disease which has spread throughout the world from time to time for many centuries, and numerous excellent records of which are available for study in medical literature. At the present time there is no exact diagnostic procedure which may be relied upon positively to differentiate epidemic influenza from severe ‘colds’ accompanied by fever, cough and prostration, and frequently followed by pneumonia, such colds being due to a variety of well-known organisms. Nevertheless there are certain fairly characteristic symptoms in typical cases of epidemic influenza which at present justify a clinical diagnosis of that disease.”

Commentary:  While influenza is not transmitted by water, the occurrence of articles like this in the engineering literature of the times shows how devastating the disease was in the U.S.

February 1, 1919: Article in Municipal Journal. Waterworks Operation—Reservoir Maintenance. Drawing Off Foul Bottom Water-Removing Vegetation from Exposed Bottom-Preventing and Destroying Algae. “Water in reservoirs in the great majority of cases improves in character by standing, suspended matters settling out and pathogenic bacteria (if any are present) settling with the heavier matters or dying in a few days. Color, also, generally fades out gradually. Part of the improvement is due to oxygen from the air and to sunlight, and the effects of these do not penetrate to any great depth; consequently it is desirable that there be a vertical circulation that will bring to the surface in succession water from all depths. ‘On the other hand, violent circulation or rapid motion will interfere with purification by sedimentation….

Water more than 15 or 20 feet deep is seldom stirred by wind, and any organic matter which may collect below this depth, receiving little oxygen from above, putrefies; color in the water’ at this depth is not bleached; and in general this deep water may become foul, dark colored and ill-smelling unless it receives little or no organic matter to produce such conditions.

In the autumn, the surface water cools more and more as the average air temperature falls, and finally becomes cooler and consequently heavier than the water at the bottom and settles to and displaces such bottom water, forcing it to the top, bringing the accumulated pollution with it. This fall “overturn” often causes this foul water to enter the supply mains.”

Reference:  Municipal Journal. 46:5(February 1, 1919): 86-7, 92-3.

December 28, 1918: Minneapolis Filtration; 1918: Influenza Pandemic

Water filtration beds at the original filtration plant at Columbia Heights.

December 28, 1918:  Municipal Journal article—Water Filtration at Minneapolis. “The Minneapolis water filtration plant consists of a 7.5-million-gallon sedimentation basin, four coagulation basins, sixteen filter beds. and a 45-million-gallon covered clear-water reservoir. The water is treated with sulphate of alumina, thoroughly mixed and coagulated and allowed to settle, after which it is filtered by rapid sand filters. After filtration it is treated with chlorine gas. It is planned to provide a plant for softening the water which will involve the construction of appliances for softening, filtration and semi-direct pumping of the water….

Some interesting figures on the effect of the use of filtered water upon the health of the community are reported. For thirteen years prior to the filtration of the city supply (which went into service in 1913), the average death rate from typhoid fever per 100,000 population was 31. Since the city began using filtered water, the rate has been reduced to an average of 9, the rate for 1916 having been 5 per 100,000. The book value or cost of the filtration plant is given as $963,709.”

December 28, 1918:  Municipal Journal article—To Investigate Cost of Influenza. “Harrisburg, Pa.-An investigation is to be conducted by the state department of health into the cost of the epidemic of influenza, which has taken 47,000 lives. Dr. B. Franklin Royer, acting state health commissioner, has announced that every phase of the social and economic cost of the disease will be surveyed. Doctor Royer has sent letters to men and women in charge of the work of fighting the epidemic in various parts of the state and asked that the information desired be returned at once to the department. ‘Professor J. P. Lichtenberger, of the Wharton School of Finance, of the University of Pennsylvania’ he said, ‘has been engaged by the department to undertake this work, and a large corps of clerks, stenographers and other officers of the state department of health have been designated to cooperate in gathering the data….’” Commentary:  In the midst of a national construction push for more filtration plants, the U.S. was devastated by the influenza pandemic. It has been estimated that 500,000 to 675,000 people died in the U.S. alone and 20 to 50 million people worldwide.

Reference:  “Water Filtration at Minneapolis.” Municipal Journal. 45:26(December 18, 1918): 502-4.

February 1, 1919: Influenza in New York State and Reservoir Maintenance

Policemen in Seattle wearing masks made by the Red Cross, during the influenza epidemic. December 1918.

Policemen in Seattle wearing masks made by the Red Cross, during the influenza epidemic. December 1918.

February 1, 1919: Article in Municipal Journal. Declares Influenza Cause Is Unknown. “Albany, N. Y.-According to a statement by Dr. Hermann M. Biggs, state commissioner of health, in this state in the month of October alone approximately 32,000 lives were lost, while in the country as a whole 400,000 people are believed to have died of so-called influenza during the months of September, October and November. “It is questionable,” says the statement, “if any recorded epidemic has produced in a similar space of time such disastrous results, yet, despite the efforts of an army of research workers both here and abroad, the definite causative agent of the disease remains today unknown. Until proof to the contrary is forthcoming it must be assumed that the epidemic represented a very virulent form of the same disease which has spread throughout the world from time to time for many centuries, and numerous excellent records of which are available for study in medical literature. At the present time there is no exact diagnostic procedure which may be relied upon positively to differentiate epidemic influenza from severe ‘colds’ accompanied by fever, cough and prostration, and frequently followed by pneumonia, such colds being due to a variety of well-known organisms. Nevertheless there are certain fairly characteristic symptoms in typical cases of epidemic influenza which at present justify a clinical diagnosis of that disease.”

Commentary: While influenza is not transmitted by water, the occurrence of articles like this in the engineering literature of the times shows how devastating the disease was in the U.S.

0201 Reservoir OpsFebruary 1, 1919: Article in Municipal Journal. Waterworks Operation—Reservoir Maintenance. Drawing Off Foul Bottom Water-Removing Vegetation from Exposed Bottom-Preventing and Destroying Algae. “Water in reservoirs in the great majority of cases improves in character by standing, suspended matters settling out and pathogenic bacteria (if any are present) settling with the heavier matters or dying in a few days. Color, also, generally fades out gradually. Part of the improvement is due to oxygen from the air and to sunlight, and the effects of these do not penetrate to any great depth; consequently it is desirable that there be a vertical circulation that will bring to the surface in succession water from all depths. ‘On the other hand, violent circulation or rapid motion will interfere with purification by sedimentation….

Water more than 15 or 20 feet deep is seldom stirred by wind, and any organic matter which may collect below this depth, receiving little oxygen from above, putrefies; color in the water’ at this depth is not bleached; and in general this deep water may become foul, dark colored and ill-smelling unless it receives little or no organic matter to produce such conditions.

In the autumn, the surface water cools more and more as the average air temperature falls, and finally becomes cooler and consequently heavier than the water at the bottom and settles to and displaces such bottom water, forcing it to the top, bringing the accumulated pollution with it. This fall “overturn” often causes this foul water to enter the supply mains.”

Reference: Municipal Journal. 46:5(February 1, 1919): 86-7, 92-3.

December 28, 1918: Minneapolis Filtration; 1918: Influenza Pandemic

Water filtration beds at the original filtration plant at Columbia Heights.

Water filtration beds at the original filtration plant at Columbia Heights.

December 28, 1918: Municipal Journal article—Water Filtration at Minneapolis. “The Minneapolis water filtration plant consists of a 7.5-million-gallon sedimentation basin, four coagulation basins, sixteen filter beds. and a 45-million-gallon covered clear-water reservoir. The water is treated with sulphate of alumina, thoroughly mixed and coagulated and allowed to settle, after which it is filtered by rapid sand filters. After filtration it is treated with chlorine gas. It is planned to provide a plant for softening the water which will involve the construction of appliances for softening, filtration and semi-direct pumping of the water….

Some interesting figures on the effect of the use of filtered water upon the health of the community are reported. For thirteen years prior to the filtration of the city supply (which went into service in 1913), the average death rate from typhoid fever per 100,000 population was 31. Since the city began using filtered water, the rate has been reduced to an average of 9, the rate for 1916 having been 5 per 100,000. The book value or cost of the filtration plant is given as $963,709.”

0201 Influenza1December 28, 1918: Municipal Journal article—To Investigate Cost of Influenza. “Harrisburg, Pa.-An investigation is to be conducted by the state department of health into the cost of the epidemic of influenza, which has taken 47,000 lives. Dr. B. Franklin Royer, acting state health commissioner, has announced that every phase of the social and economic cost of the disease will be surveyed. Doctor Royer has sent letters to men and women in charge of the work of fighting the epidemic in various parts of the state and asked that the information desired be returned at once to the department. ‘Professor J. P. Lichtenberger, of the Wharton School of Finance, of the University of Pennsylvania’ he said, ‘has been engaged by the department to undertake this work, and a large corps of clerks, stenographers and other officers of the state department of health have been designated to cooperate in gathering the data….’” Commentary: In the midst of a national construction push for more filtration plants, the U.S. was devastated by the influenza pandemic. It has been estimated that 500,000 to 675,000 people died in the U.S. alone and 20 to 50 million people worldwide.

Reference: “Water Filtration at Minneapolis.” Municipal Journal. 45:26(December 18, 1918): 502-4.

December 28, 1918: Minneapolis Filtration; 1918: Influenza Pandemic

Water filtration beds at the original filtration plant at Columbia Heights.

Water filtration beds at the original filtration plant at Columbia Heights.

December 28, 1918: Municipal Journal article—Water Filtration at Minneapolis. “The Minneapolis water filtration plant consists of a 7.5-million-gallon sedimentation basin, four coagulation basins, sixteen filter beds. and a 45-million-gallon covered clear-water reservoir. The water is treated with sulphate of alumina, thoroughly mixed and coagulated and allowed to settle, after which it is filtered by rapid sand filters. After filtration it is treated with chlorine gas. It is planned to provide a plant for softening the water which will involve the construction of appliances for softening, filtration and semi-direct pumping of the water….

Some interesting figures on the effect of the use of filtered water upon the health of the community are reported. For thirteen years prior to the filtration of the city supply (which went into service in 1913), the average death rate from typhoid fever per 100,000 population was 31. Since the city began using filtered water, the rate has been reduced to an average of 9, the rate for 1916 having been 5 per 100,000. The book value or cost of the filtration plant is given as $963,709.”

Policemen in Seattle wearing masks made by the Red Cross, during the influenza epidemic. December 1918.

Policemen in Seattle wearing masks made by the Red Cross, during the influenza epidemic. December 1918.

December 28, 1918: Municipal Journal article—To Investigate Cost of Influenza. “Harrisburg, Pa.-An investigation is to be conducted by the state department of health into the cost of the epidemic of influenza, which has taken 47,000 lives. Dr. B. Franklin Royer, acting state health commissioner, has announced that every phase of the social and economic cost of the disease will be surveyed. Doctor Royer has sent letters to men and women in charge of the work of fighting the epidemic in various parts of the state and asked that the information desired be returned at once to the department. ‘Professor J. P. Lichtenberger, of the Wharton School of Finance, of the University of Pennsylvania’ he said, ‘has been engaged by the department to undertake this work, and a large corps of clerks, stenographers and other officers of the state department of health have been designated to cooperate in gathering the data….’” Commentary: In the midst of a national construction push for more filtration plants, the U.S. was devastated by the influenza pandemic. It has been estimated that 500,000 to 675,000 people died in the U.S. alone and 20 to 50 million people worldwide.

Reference: “Water Filtration at Minneapolis.” Municipal Journal. 45:26(December 18, 1918): 502-4.