August 25, 1909: Municipal Journal and Engineer article. Surface Water in Reservoir Causes Typhoid. “Waverly, Kan.-Professor Hoad, Engineer of the State Board of Health, who is investigating the sanitary condition of Kansas towns, says the worst place he has seen for many days is Waverly. The town has a population of about 500 or more people, and for the last two years typhoid fever has been practically continuous. Professor Hoad said that he and Dr. Crumbine, Secretary of the Board, had studied carefully all the probable causes, eliminating them one by one-even Dr. Crumbine’s fly-until finally it was narrowed down to the city water. The city gets its water from a large well or small reservoir, and this had been continually polluted by surface washings. Professor Hoad made the statement that if at the present time the same per cent of cases to the number of population existed in Topeka as now exist in Waverly there would be about 550 cases of typhoid in Topeka. He and Dr. Crumbine appeared before the City Council and ordered them to cement the outside of the wall, which is to be raised three feet. Then the water is to be pumped out and the inside of the wall plastered, after which the well is to be thoroughly disinfected. When this is done Professor Hoad will inspect the work and make a test of the water.”
Commentary: Dr. Crumbine is the same public health professional who championed the banning of the common cup in Kansas and was instrumental in getting it banned on interstate carriers by federal regulation.