Tag Archives: slow sand filters

July 21, 1909: Filters for Providence, RI

July 21, 1909:  Municipal Journal and Engineerarticle. Water Filters of Providence, R.I. “Final construction is just about being completed on the ten filter beds which constitute the plant designed some years ago for the purification of the water supply of Providence, R.I. The first contract was dated July 15, 1902, and called for six slow sand filters each approximately one acre in effective area; a regulating house containing the measuring and controlling apparatus; a pumping station, and a laboratory building. When the plans for these filters were under consideration the subject of covering the beds was considered at some length. In view of the fact that at Lawrence, Mass., 50 miles further north, little trouble had been experienced with snow and ice or with any serious interruption of bacterial efficiency on account of cold, and inasmuch as a considerable saving in cost could he made by omitting the covers the Commissioner of Public Works decided to adopt open filter beds.

Part of the first six beds was put in operation in the summer of 1904 and a second contract was let on February 13, 1905 calling for another regulating house and two additional beds. The winter of 1905-06 was particularly severe in New England and the formation of ice on the water over the filter beds then in service made the cleaning of them very difficult and at times almost impossible. Ice fourteen inches thick formed over the filters, and not only the full force of water works employees but a number from the sewer department also were utilized, the force at times reaching 150 men; but even with these it was impossible to remove the ice as fast as it formed. In consequence the beds had to be operated with much greater loss of head than had been intended. The same difficulty was found in the winter of 1906-07 and at times it was found necessary to draw water directly from the river to supply the demand.

This experience convinced those in charge that it would conduce not only to greater efficiency of filtration in winter time, but to greater economy also, to have the filters covered. Accordingly on June 11, 1906, a contract was let to the Pettaconset Construction Company of Providence, which firm also obtained the two previous contracts for the filters, for placing covers over the beds then under construction, and also over the six already completed; also to construct two more covered beds, making ten beds in all.”

Commentary:  Note the highlighted section. If the filters are not used because the cold weather causes the water to freeze, then they are not much good as a barrier to disease. In The Chlorine Revolution, I noted that the typhoid fever rate was not much reduced after slow sand filtration was introduced into Lawrence, MA. Perhaps they were drawing raw water out of the Merrimac River during the winter and not telling anyone.

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January 20, 1916: Lowell, Mass. Filtration Plant and Watertown, NY Water Supply

January 20, 1916:  Municipal Journalarticle–New Filtration Plant Completed. “Lowell, Mass.-The city’s new $225,000 filtration plant is now in operation. The building is of concrete, with red tile roof, and is artistic in design. The filtration or purification plant is located on the north side of the boulevard, immediately opposite the lower pumping station. It consists of six coke prefilters, 10 feet in depth and two-fifths of an acre in total area; a settling basin, divided into two units, with a total capacity of 500,000 gallons; six sand filters, with a total area of one acre; and a filtered water reservoir of 1,000,000 gallons capacity. All of the operations involved are controlled in the building shown in the accompanying illustration, where are contained the main valves and recording apparatus. At the rate of 75 million gallons per acre per day through the prefilters. and a 10 million gallon rate through the sand filters the areas provided have a capacity of a 10-million gallon daily output. Allowing for cleaning and for the possible desirability of a lower rate through the coke, the plant is believed to be ample for an average daily supply of 7,500,000 to 8,500,000 gallons, or-if the past growth of the population holds in the future-sufficient for the needs of the city until 1935.”

January 20, 1916:  Municipal Journalarticle–Engineers’ Report on Water Supplies. “Watertown, N. Y.-The report of Hazen, Whipple & Fuller, the consulting engineers, who for several months past have been investigating available sources from which Watertown might secure its water supply has been presented to city officials. The report is an exhaustive one and is supplemented by maps of the available areas prepared under the direction of the engineers. Four possible sources aside from the one now used are considered in the report, and, while no recommendations are made, statistics of the cost of the works and cost of maintenance all of which are embodied in the report, show that the possible supply from the north branch of Sandy Creek is the most satisfactory and least expensive. The report shows that the proposed Pine Plains source would not furnish a sufficient supply of water from wells alone. While the city at the present time consumes approximately 6,000.000 gallons of water a day, the commissioners decided before the survey started that no supply would he considered satisfactory unless it would furnish at least 12.000,000 gallons per day. This would assure a supply that could be used without addition for many years to come.”

Reference: “Engineers’ Report on Water Supplies.” 1916.Municipal Journal.40:3(January 20, 1916): 82-3.

July 21, 1909: Filters for Providence, RI

July 21, 1909:  Municipal Journal and Engineerarticle. Water Filters of Providence, R.I. “Final construction is just about being completed on the ten filter beds which constitute the plant designed some years ago for the purification of the water supply of Providence, R.I. The first contract was dated July 15, 1902, and called for six slow sand filters each approximately one acre in effective area; a regulating house containing the measuring and controlling apparatus; a pumping station, and a laboratory building. When the plans for these filters were under consideration the subject of covering the beds was considered at some length. In view of the fact that at Lawrence, Mass., 50 miles further north, little trouble had been experienced with snow and ice or with any serious interruption of bacterial efficiency on account of cold, and inasmuch as a considerable saving in cost could he made by omitting the covers the Commissioner of Public Works decided to adopt open filter beds.

Part of the first six beds was put in operation in the summer of 1904 and a second contract was let on February 13, 1905 calling for another regulating house and two additional beds. The winter of 1905-06 was particularly severe in New England and the formation of ice on the water over the filter beds then in service made the cleaning of them very difficult and at times almost impossible. Ice fourteen inches thick formed over the filters, and not only the full force of water works employees but a number from the sewer department also were utilized, the force at times reaching 150 men; but even with these it was impossible to remove the ice as fast as it formed. In consequence the beds had to be operated with much greater loss of head than had been intended. The same difficulty was found in the winter of 1906-07 and at times it was found necessary to draw water directly from the river to supply the demand.

This experience convinced those in charge that it would conduce not only to greater efficiency of filtration in winter time, but to greater economy also, to have the filters covered. Accordingly on June 11, 1906, a contract was let to the Pettaconset Construction Company of Providence, which firm also obtained the two previous contracts for the filters, for placing covers over the beds then under construction, and also over the six already completed; also to construct two more covered beds, making ten beds in all.”

Commentary:  Note the highlighted section. If the filters are not used because the cold weather causes the water to freeze, then they are not much good as a barrier to disease. In The Chlorine Revolution, I noted that the typhoid fever rate was not much reduced after slow sand filtration was introduced into Lawrence, MA. Perhaps they were drawing raw water out of the Merrimac River during the winter and not telling anyone.

#TDIWH—January 20, 1916: Lowell, Mass. Filtration Plant and Watertown, NY Water Supply

January 20, 1916:  Municipal Journal article–New Filtration Plant Completed. “Lowell, Mass.-The city’s new $225,000 filtration plant is now in operation. The building is of concrete, with red tile roof, and is artistic in design. The filtration or purification plant is located on the north side of the boulevard, immediately opposite the lower pumping station. It consists of six coke prefilters, 10 feet in depth and two-fifths of an acre in total area; a settling basin, divided into two units, with a total capacity of 500,000 gallons; six sand filters, with a total area of one acre; and a filtered water reservoir of 1,000,000 gallons capacity. All of the operations involved are controlled in the building shown in the accompanying illustration, where are contained the main valves and recording apparatus. At the rate of 75 million gallons per acre per day through the prefilters. and a 10 million gallon rate through the sand filters the areas provided have a capacity of a 10-million gallon daily output. Allowing for cleaning and for the possible desirability of a lower rate through the coke, the plant is believed to be ample for an average daily supply of 7,500,000 to 8,500,000 gallons, or-if the past growth of the population holds in the future-sufficient for the needs of the city until 1935.”

January 20, 1916:  Municipal Journal article–Engineers’ Report on Water Supplies. “Watertown, N. Y.-The report of Hazen, Whipple & Fuller, the consulting engineers, who for several months past have been investigating available sources from which Watertown might secure its water supply has been presented to city officials. The report is an exhaustive one and is supplemented by maps of the available areas prepared under the direction of the engineers. Four possible sources aside from the one now used are considered in the report, and, while no recommendations are made, statistics of the cost of the works and cost of maintenance all of which are embodied in the report, show that the possible supply from the north branch of Sandy Creek is the most satisfactory and least expensive. The report shows that the proposed Pine Plains source would not furnish a sufficient supply of water from wells alone. While the city at the present time consumes approximately 6,000.000 gallons of water a day, the commissioners decided before the survey started that no supply would he considered satisfactory unless it would furnish at least 12.000,000 gallons per day. This would assure a supply that could be used without addition for many years to come.”

Reference: “Engineers’ Report on Water Supplies.” 1916. Municipal Journal. 40:3(January 20, 1916): 82-3.

July 21, 1909: Filters for Providence, RI

July 21, 1909: Municipal Journal and Engineer article. Water Filters of Providence, R.I. “Final construction is just about being completed on the ten filter beds which constitute the plant designed some years ago for the purification of the water supply of Providence, R.I. The first contract was dated July 15, 1902, and called for six slow sand filters each approximately one acre in effective area; a regulating house containing the measuring and controlling apparatus; a pumping station, and a laboratory building. When the plans for these filters were under consideration the subject of covering the beds was considered at some length. In view of the fact that at Lawrence, Mass., 50 miles further north, little trouble had been experienced with snow and ice or with any serious interruption of bacterial efficiency on account of cold, and inasmuch as a considerable saving in cost could he made by omitting the covers the Commissioner of Public Works decided to adopt open filter beds.

Part of the first six beds was put in operation in the summer of 1904 and a second contract was let on February 13, 1905 calling for another regulating house and two additional beds. The winter of 1905-06 was particularly severe in New England and the formation of ice on the water over the filter beds then in service made the cleaning of them very difficult and at times almost impossible. Ice fourteen inches thick formed over the filters, and not only the full force of water works employees but a number from the sewer department also were utilized, the force at times reaching 150 men; but even with these it was impossible to remove the ice as fast as it formed. In consequence the beds had to be operated with much greater loss of head than had been intended. The same difficulty was found in the winter of 1906-07 and at times it was found necessary to draw water directly from the river to supply the demand.

This experience convinced those in charge that it would conduce not only to greater efficiency of filtration in winter time, but to greater economy also, to have the filters covered. Accordingly on June 11, 1906, a contract was let to the Pettaconset Construction Company of Providence, which firm also obtained the two previous contracts for the filters, for placing covers over the beds then under construction, and also over the six already completed; also to construct two more covered beds, making ten beds in all.”

Commentary: Note the highlighted section. If the filters are not used because the cold weather causes the water to freeze, then they are not much good as a barrier to disease. In The Chlorine Revolution, I noted that the typhoid fever rate was not much reduced after slow sand filtration was introduced into Lawrence, MA. Perhaps they were drawing raw water out of the Merrimac River during the winter and not telling anyone.

#TDIWH—January 20, 1916: Lowell, Mass. Filtration Plant and Watertown, NY Water Supply

0120 Lowell Filter PlantJanuary 20, 1916:  Municipal Journal article–New Filtration Plant Completed. “Lowell, Mass.-The city’s new $225,000 filtration plant is now in operation. The building is of concrete, with red tile roof, and is artistic in design. The filtration or purification plant is located on the north side of the boulevard, immediately opposite the lower pumping station. It consists of six coke prefilters, 10 feet in depth and two-fifths of an acre in total area; a settling basin, divided into two units, with a total capacity of 500,000 gallons; six sand filters, with a total area of one acre; and a filtered water reservoir of 1,000,000 gallons capacity. All of the operations involved are controlled in the building shown in the accompanying illustration, where are contained the main valves and recording apparatus. At the rate of 75 million gallons per acre per day through the prefilters. and a 10 million gallon rate through the sand filters the areas provided have a capacity of a 10-million gallon daily output. Allowing for cleaning and for the possible desirability of a lower rate through the coke, the plant is believed to be ample for an average daily supply of 7,500,000 to 8,500,000 gallons, or-if the past growth of the population holds in the future-sufficient for the needs of the city until 1935.”

0726 Allen HazenJanuary 20, 1916:  Municipal Journal article–Engineers’ Report on Water Supplies. “Watertown, N. Y.-The report of Hazen, Whipple & Fuller, the consulting engineers, who for several months past have been investigating available sources from which Watertown might secure its water supply has been presented to city officials. The report is an exhaustive one and is supplemented by maps of the available areas prepared under the direction of the engineers. Four possible sources aside from the one now used are considered in the report, and, while no recommendations are made, statistics of the cost of the works and cost of maintenance all of which are embodied in the report, show that the possible supply from the north branch of Sandy Creek is the most satisfactory and least expensive. The report shows that the proposed Pine Plains source would not furnish a sufficient supply of water from wells alone. While the city at the present time consumes approximately 6,000.000 gallons of water a day, the commissioners decided before the survey started that no supply would he considered satisfactory unless it would furnish at least 12.000,000 gallons per day. This would assure a supply that could be used without addition for many years to come.”

Reference: “Engineers’ Report on Water Supplies.” 1916. Municipal Journal. 40:3(January 20, 1916): 82-3.

July 21, 1909: Filters for Providence, RI

0721 Filters for Providence RIJuly 21, 1909: Municipal Journal and Engineer article. Water Filters of Providence, R.I. “Final construction is just about being completed on the ten filter beds which constitute the plant designed some years ago for the purification of the water supply of Providence, R.I. The first contract was dated July 15, 1902, and called for six slow sand filters each approximately one acre in effective area; a regulating house containing the measuring and controlling apparatus; a pumping station, and a laboratory building. When the plans for these filters were under consideration the subject of covering the beds was considered at some length. In view of the fact that at Lawrence, Mass., 50 miles further north, little trouble had been experienced with snow and ice or with any serious interruption of bacterial efficiency on account of cold, and inasmuch as a considerable saving in cost could he made by omitting the covers the Commissioner of Public Works decided to adopt open filter beds.

Part of the first six beds was put in operation in the summer of 1904 and a second contract was let on February 13, 1905 calling for another regulating house and two additional beds. The winter of 1905-06 was particularly severe in New England and the formation of ice on the water over the filter beds then in service made the cleaning of them very difficult and at times almost impossible. Ice fourteen inches thick formed over the filters, and not only the full force of water works employees but a number from the sewer department also were utilized, the force at times reaching 150 men; but even with these it was impossible to remove the ice as fast as it formed. In consequence the beds had to be operated with much greater loss of head than had been intended. The same difficulty was found in the winter of 1906-07 and at times it was found necessary to draw water directly from the river to supply the demand.

This experience convinced those in charge that it would conduce not only to greater efficiency of filtration in winter time, but to greater economy also, to have the filters covered. Accordingly on June 11, 1906, a contract was let to the Pettaconset Construction Company of Providence, which firm also obtained the two previous contracts for the filters, for placing covers over the beds then under construction, and also over the six already completed; also to construct two more covered beds, making ten beds in all.”

Commentary: Note the highlighted section. If the filters are not used because the cold weather causes the water to freeze, then they are not much good as a barrier to disease. In The Chlorine Revolution, I noted that the typhoid fever rate was not much reduced after slow sand filtration was introduced into Lawrence, MA. Perhaps they were drawing raw water out of the Merrimac River during the winter and not telling anyone.