Tag Archives: The Chlorine Revolution

#TDIWH—February 9, 1918: Water and Energy Waste in Chicago

0209 Coal pump plantsFebruary 9, 1918: Municipal Journal article. 100,000 Tons of Coal Wasted by Chicago. “The Chicago Waterworks pumps and sterilizes two and a half times as much water as the consumers actually use, the balance-waste and leakage-amounting to more than the combined consumption of Milwaukee, Boston, Cleveland and St. Louis.

The coal required for pumping this waste during one year amounts to about 100,000 tons-more than enough to heat all the public schools during the present coal-famine winter. This useless pumping adds about half a million dollars a year to the operating expenses.

In addition, three and a half million dollars is spent annually in an attempt to keep the plant adequate for the extravagantly excessive service, and even this amount is not sufficient. If the waste could be stopped, no more such additions need be made for more than thirty years to come.

The wasteful consumption of water so reduces the pressure in the mains that over more than three-fourths of the area of the city it is less than half of that recommended by the National Board of Fire Underwriters; and in only one of the 35 wards does it equal the recommended pressure.

The above startling facts are derived from a report entitled ‘The Waterworks System of the City of Chicago’ that has just been published by the Chicago Bureau of Public Efficiency. This report contains 207 pages, 28 of which are occupied by diagrams, photographs and other illustrations. A considerable part of the report is devoted to a description of the waterworks system of the city, but the purpose of the entire report is to make public and emphasize the enormous amount of unnecessary waste, and the undoubted increase in this which will occur, with the consequent waste of public funds involved, unless radical methods are carried out for greatly reducing it. The main points brought out in the report we will endeavor to give in a brief synopsis.

With approximately two-and-one-half million population, Chicago is pumping into its water mains 14 per cent more water than New York receives by gravity (with no pumping costs) for the use of a population of five and one-half million. It supplies more water than any other waterworks system in the world.

Commentary: Many of the large cities in the U.S. were battling with water waste due to the enormous costs. Universal metering and an aggressive rate structure eventually reduced water waste dramatically in most cities. The figure below showing the dramatic drop in the typhoid death rate is similar to the one I included in The Chlorine Revolution: Water Disinfection and the Fight to Save Lives. Chicago was an excellent example of how water disinfection saved lives.

Reference: Municipal Journal. 1918. “100,000 Tons of Coal Wasted by Chicago.” 44:6(February 9, 1918): 105-6.

0209 Chicago Typhoid death rate decline

#TDIWH—February 8, 1917: Orthotolidine Test for Chlorine Residual

Orthotolidine Solution

Orthotolidine Solution

February 8, 1917: Municipal Journal article. Test for Chlorine in Water. “Control of Disinfection Process by Ortho-Tolidin Test, With Colored Glass Plates as Color Standards-How to Prepare Plates. By Francis E. Daniels. For an intelligent control of the process of disinfection of water supplies it is highly essential to make frequent use of some quick chemical test in order to be sure that the disinfecting agent is being applied in the proper amounts at all times. By means of such a test the writer has frequently detected improper dosing in a few minutes. Low doses due to breaks, stoppages in feed control apparatus, improper mixing of chemicals, or weak hypochlorite have been shown by such tests, as also overdosing. On more than one occasion it bas been observed that no hypochlorite had been put in the solution tank—only water being fed through the dosing apparatus.

Such a test therefore is very useful for the inspector; but it is more useful to the man in charge in that it gives him a ready means of satisfying himself that the dose is exactly what he has been instructed to make it. It also gives information days in advance of the completion of bacterial tests.

The disinfection by chlorine or its compounds at a good many water plants has been controlled by the so-called starch-iodide or Sims-Woodhead test. This is quite satisfactory in many places, but it is not so delicate and is more cumbersome for the inspector than another test known as the ortho-tolidin test.

The ortho-tolidin test was discovered and used by Prof. Phelps and the writer in 1907; but it was later improved by Messrs. Ellms and Hauser. It is to appear again in the new edition of the Standard Methods of Water Analysis of the American Public Health Association.

Commentary: Earle B. Phelps first revealed his discovery of orthotolidine and its ability to detect chlorine during his testimony on May 11, 1909 at the second Jersey City trial. Reading Daniels’ article reminds us all how fortunate we are to have such good analytical methods to tell us how well we are doing in the killing of pathogens. In the early part of the 20th century, they were just beginning to develop the tools they needed to get the job done.

References:

Daniels, Francis E. 1917. “Test for Chlorine in Water.” Municipal Journal. 42:6(February 8, 1917): 197.

McGuire, Michael J. 2013. The Chlorine Revolution: Water Disinfection and the Fight to Save Lives. Denver, CO:American Water Works Association.

#TDIWH—February 4, 1909: Second Use of Chlorine in the U.S.; 1877: Birth of C.E.A. Winslow

Little Falls Water Treatment Plant

Little Falls Water Treatment Plant

February 4, 1909: Dr. John L. Leal testified at the second Jersey City trial about the first use of chlorine for continuous disinfection of a U.S. water supply at Boonton Reservoir, which was the water supply for Jersey City, New Jersey. The transcript from February 5, 1909, revealed that Leal had also installed a chloride of lime feed system at the filtration plant at Little Falls, New Jersey. He stated that he had experimented with chloride of lime addition some months before and that he was now using it daily. Thus, the trial transcript provides the first written evidence of the second continuous use of chlorine to disinfect a drinking water supply. This was also the first time chlorine was used in conjunction with mechanical filtration.

Reference: McGuire, Michael J. 2013. The Chlorine Revolution: Water Disinfection and the Fight to Save Lives. Denver, CO:American Water Works Association.

0108 CEA WinslowFebruary 4, 1877: Charles-Edward A. Winslow is born. “Charles-Edward Amory Winslow (4 February 1877 – 8 January 1957) was an American bacteriologist and public health expert who was, according to the Encyclopedia of Public Health, “a seminal figure in public health, not only in his own country, the United States, but in the wider Western world.”

Winslow was born in Boston, Massachusetts and attended Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.), obtaining a B.S. in 1898 and an M.S. in 1910.

He began his career as a bacteriologist. He met Anne Fuller Rogers when they were students in William T. Sedgwick’s laboratory at M.I.T., and married her in 1907. He taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology while heading the sewage experiment station from 1908 to 1910, then taught at the College of the City of New York from 1910 to 1914.

He was the youngest charter member of the Society of American Bacteriologists when that organization was founded in 1899. With Samuel Cate Prescott he published the first American textbook on the elements of water bacteriology.

In 1915 he founded the Yale Department of Public Health within the Yale Medical School, and he was professor and chairman of the Department until he retired in 1945. (The Department became the Yale School of Public Health after accreditation was introduced in 1947.) During a time dominated by discoveries in bacteriology, he emphasized a broader perspective on causation, adopting a more holistic perspective. The department under his direction was a catalyst for health reform in Connecticut. He was the first director of Yale’s J.B. Pierce Laboratory, serving from 1932 to 1957. Winslow was also instrumental in founding the Yale School of Nursing.

He was the first Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Bacteriology, serving in that position from 1916 to 1944. He was also editor of the American Journal of Public Health from 1944 to 1954. He was curator of public health at the American Museum of Natural History from 1910 to 1922. In 1926 he became president of the American Public Health Association, and in the 1950s was a consultant to the World Health Organization.”

#TDIWH—January 25, 1921: Death of William T. Sedgwick; 1945: Fluoridation in Grand Rapids, MI; 1870: Patent for Soda Water

1229 William T SedgwickJanuary 25, 1921: William T. Sedgwick dies. William Thompson Sedgwick (December 29, 1855, West Hartford – January 25, 1921, Boston) was a key figure in shaping public health in the United States. He completed his college education at the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale University in 1877 and received his PhD from Johns Hopkins University in 1881. He taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) from 1883 until his death in 1921, aged 65, initially as Associate Professor (1884), as tenured Professor (1891) and eventually as head of the department of Biology and Public Health. Also, he was curator of the Lowell Institute from 1897 on.

Sedgwick was the first president of the Society of American Bacteriologists (now American Society for Microbiology) in 1899-1901. He was a mentor to George Warren Fuller and George C. Whipple who would both go on to notable careers in water and wastewater technology.

Reference:  “William Thompson Sedgwick.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_T._Sedgwick, retrieved December 27, 2012.

Grand Rapids schoolchildren giving saliva samples as part of the city's water fluoridation project.

Grand Rapids schoolchildren giving saliva samples as part of the city’s water fluoridation project.

January 25, 1945: CDC Honors 65 Years of Community Water Fluoridation. “Sixty-five years ago, on January 25, 1945, the city of Grand Rapids, Michigan, added fluoride to its municipal water system and community water fluoridation began. Since that day, this simple, safe, and inexpensive public health intervention has contributed to a remarkable decline in tooth decay in the United States, with each generation enjoying better oral health than the previous generation.

After fluoride’s oral health benefits were discovered in the 1930s, the next step was to achieve optimal levels in community water supplies. Four communities had agreed to undertake community studies, but Grand Rapids was the first to begin implementation. After fluoride was added to its water supply, Grand Rapids was compared to “control” communities with no added fluoride, and a detailed assessment of the relationship between fluoridation and tooth decay was performed. The National Academy of Sciences’ National Research Council (NRC) reviewed the results and found a dramatic decline in tooth decay in the Grand Rapids children. On November 29, 1951, the NRC declared water fluoridation safe, effective, and beneficial.”

Soda Fountain

Soda Fountain

January 25, 1870: “Gustavus D. Dows, of Boston, MA, received a patent for an “Improvement in Soda-Fountains”; vessel in which carbon dioxide was injected, formed soda-water beverage, delivered drink using internal pressure; modern form of soda fountain; 1858 – made first ornamented soda fountain in the U.S. from white Italian marble with spread eagles perched on the syrup cocks; 1862 – invented a double stream draft arm and cock, for a large or small stream; 1863 – made and sold soda fountains for $225.”

Reference: “Business History.” Website http://www.businesshistory.com/index.php, Accessed November 14, 2012.

January 2, 1900: Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal Opening

Breaking the dam and turning water into the Canal on January 2, 1900

Breaking the dam and turning water into the Canal on January 2, 1900

January 2, 1900: On January 2, 1900, the City of Chicago opened up an earthen dam that isolated the Chicago Drainage Canal and forced the Chicago River to reverse its course and discharge into the Mississippi River 43 miles above the intake for the water supply of St. Louis, Missouri.(Hill 2000) The total travel distance for the sewage from its generation to St. Louis intake was about 357 miles. Missouri sued Illinois to plug the connection to the Mississippi River, also called the Sanitary and Ship Canal, which they claimed was contaminating the St. Louis water supply and increasing the incidence of typhoid fever in that community.

The U.S. Supreme Court asserted primary jurisdiction in the case. Testimony of witnesses was held before Frank S. Bright who was Commissioner of the US Supreme Court. In the first sentence of a report on the trial, the author of the report, which summarized the testimony in the case gave his opinion on the importance and the content of the trial.

“The testimony taken in the suit of the, State of Missouri against the State of Illinois and the sanitary district of Chicago comprises the best symposium on river pollution, its biological and chemical aspects, and its general and special sanitary significance that has ever been assembled.”(Leighton 1907)

Digging the Chicago Drainage Canal

Digging the Chicago Drainage Canal

The case was more well-known than the lawsuit associated with the first use of chlorine to disinfect a U.S. water supply—Jersey City, New Jersey. The outcome of the Chicago case rested on the testimony of renowned water quality experts on both sides. Of particular interest, some of the same expert witnesses in the Chicago Drainage case testified in the Jersey City trials. The sanitary experts in common were, for the plaintiff: George C. Whipple, Allen Hazen, William T. Sedgwick and George W. Fuller. For the defendant, the experts in common were: Rudolph Hering (business partner with George W. Fuller, but on the opposite side of the case), William P. Mason and Leonard P. Kinnicutt.(Leighton 1907) It was not uncommon for the leading sanitary engineers, chemists and bacteriologists to find themselves on one side of a lawsuit or another from their brethren and then the next trial would result in a new mix of experts and their clients.

The final verdict in the trial came from the U.S. Supreme Court. The Justices read the transcript and briefs submitted to it and rendered an opinion written by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes. Based on his opinion, it was clear that the Justices relied on the clarity, truthfulness and logic of the experts on both sides and the chemical and bacteriological data presented during trial. Differences of opinion between the experts were evaluated and resolved by the Court. In one example, Justice Holmes noted that while St. Louis was blaming sewage from Chicago for increasing the typhoid fever death rate in their city, experts for the defendants showed convincingly that there was no evidence that contamination from Chicago was causing the problem and that sewage discharges from other cities above the intake in Missouri and Illinois including St. Louis were more likely responsible for the degraded quality of their water supply. The Court found on all points for the defendants and the Court obviously believed that the weight of expert opinion testimony favored the defendants’ position.(Leighton 1907)

Dredging the river for the Sanitary and Ship Canal

Dredging the river for the Sanitary and Ship Canal

What the trial did not do was establish a precedent or make a ruling that revolutionized the conduct of cities with regard to sewage discharges and water supply. Unlike the impact of the Jersey City case, which is presented in full in the book, The Chlorine Revolution: Water Disinfection and the Fight to Save Lives, the result of the Chicago Drainage Canal case was that contamination of a water supply by an upstream sewage discharge had to be proven with real data and not based on the speculation and unproven opinions of expert witnesses. Contamination had to be proven as actually coming from the upstream party being sued. As Justice Holmes stated in his opinion: “The plaintiff obviously must be cautious upon this point, for if this suit should succeed many others would follow, and it not improbably would find itself a defendant to a bill by one or more of the States lower down upon the Mississippi.”(Leighton 1907) In effect, St. Louis and the state of Missouri reached too far (about 357 miles) and the U.S. Supreme Court did not agree with their claims.

In the history of sanitary engineering in the U.S., the Chicago Drainage Canal case has been far better known than the Jersey City case. The only logical reason is that an excellent summary of the Chicago case was published in a U.S. Geological Survey report that was widely available. The Jersey City trial transcripts were contained in a limited printing of 12 volumes covering over 6,800 pages that no one had summarized and very few people had ever read.

The well-known attorney, Alan M. Dershowitz, published a book in 2004 summarizing the major trials in the U.S. over the past 300 years that “transformed our nation.” The trials that he summarized extended all the way back to the 17th century and the Salem Witch Trials. Important trials that are covered in the book included the Boston Massacre Trials, the Trial of Aaron Burr, the Dred Scott Case, the Scopes “Monkey” Trial, the trial of the Chicago Seven, the O.J. Simpson Trial, the Clinton Impeachment Trial, and Bush v. Gore. Neither the Chicago Drainage Canal case nor the two Jersey City trials were mentioned in Dershowitz’s book despite their importance to water quality improvements and major advances in public health.(Dershowitz 2004)

References:

Dershowitz, Alan M. America on Trial: Inside the Legal Battles that Transformed our Nation. New York:Warner Books, 2004.

Hill, Libby. The Chicago River: A Natural and Unnatural History. Chicago:Lake Claremont Press, 2000.

Leighton, Marshall O. “Pollution of Illinois and Mississippi Rivers by Chicago Sewage: A Digest of the Testimony Taken in the Case of the State of Missouri v. the State of Illinois and the Sanitary District of Chicago.” U.S. Geological Survey, Water Supply and Irrigation Paper No. 194, Series L, Quality of Water, 20, Department of the Interior, Washington, DC:U.S. Government Printing Office, 1907.

December 22, 1877: Nascent Oxygen; 1998: Pollution Runs Through It

Nascent Oxygen Theory

Nascent Oxygen Theory

December 22, 1877: Publication date for “The Nascent State as Affecting Chemical Action.” (Davies 1877) Before we understood that oxidation-reduction reactions involved electron transfers, chemists theorized that oxygen existed in a “nascent state.” This state made it possible for oxidation reactions to take place. Such an outmoded chemistry concept is relevant to a discussion of the history of chlorination in the U.S.

The first continuous use of chlorine to disinfect a U.S. water supply occurred at Boonton Reservoir—the water supply for Jersey City, New Jersey. As recounted in a forthcoming book (The Chlorine Revolution), two trials defined the need for disinfection and documented how it happened. In the second Jersey City trial, Dr. John L. Leal claimed that chlorine was not responsible for killing bacteria. Instead, he put forth the long-standing theory that chlorine when added to water liberated something called nascent oxygen, and it was the nascent oxygen was responsible for disinfection. (McGuire 2013)

The concept of nascent oxygen originated with James Watt, who described the importance of liberated oxygen in the bleaching process. An equation suggested by Watt (Race 1918) showed chlorine producing oxygen when it was dissolved in water:

Cl2 + H2O = 2HCl + O

In which Cl2 = chlorine, H2O = water, HCl = hydrochloric acid, and O = nascent oxygen.

In a later, well-known publication, Albert D. Hooker stated the theory most clearly: “It should be well understood that chloride of lime, in its industrial application of bleaching, deodorizing, or disinfecting, does not act by its chlorine, but by its oxygen.” (Emphasis in original.) (Hooker 1913)

In 1918, Joseph Race described the controversy surrounding chlorine’s mode of action in water. Race stated that Fischer and Proskauer (1884) believed that chlorine was not directly toxic. Warouzoff, Winograoff, and Kolessnikoff (1886) found that chlorine gas killed airborne tetanus spores. Interestingly, Race quoted at length John L. Leal’s second-trial testimony supporting the theory of disinfection by nascent or potential oxygen. However, Race’s laboratory work in 1915–17 appeared to convince him that disinfection was caused by the direct toxic action of chlorine and not by nascent oxygen. (Race 1918)

Other publications reflected the confusion over chlorine’s mechanism of action. In his 1917 textbook, Ellms (who would testify in the second Jersey City trial) presented equations showing the formation of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) when chlorine was added to water. At this point in his discussion, he was correct. However, he then stated “The HOCL is decomposed into HCl and oxygen, which latter acts upon any oxidizable matter that may be present.” (Ellms 1917)

2HOCL à 2HCl + O2

In this case, HOCl = hypochlorous acid and O2 = oxygen.

“The energy liberated by the decomposition of the hypochlorous acid, as previously stated, explains the powerful oxidizing action of the evolved oxygen, and the destructive effect upon the microorganisms. Chlorine or the hypochlorites are therefore, merely agents for the production of oxygen under conditions which render it extremely active.” (Ellms 1917)

Abel Wolman and I.H. Enslow tried to put a stop to the nascent oxygen theory in 1919, but it persisted long after that. (Fair and Geyer 1954) We know now that HOCl exists in water in equilibrium with the dissociated hypochlorite ion and that the degree of dissociation is a function of the water’s pH.

HOCL ↔ OCl + H+

For this equation, OCl = hypochlorite ion and H+ = hydrogen ion.

In a textbook published in 1924, authors F.E. Turneaure and H.L. Russell tried to straddle the issue:

“The reaction of both hypochlorite and liquid chlorine in sterilization of water is substantially the same. The accepted theory is that the chlorine forms hypochlorous acid with the water setting free nascent oxygen which is considered the effective sterilization agent. Some authorities, however, contend that the chlorine itself has a toxic effect upon the bacteria.” (Turneaure and Russell 1924)

A 1935 rewrite of Sedgwick’s famous book on sanitary science favored the direct action of chlorine theory but did not totally discount the action by nascent oxygen.

“The mechanism by which chlorine brings about germicidal action is still undetermined. It is believed by some that the bacteria are destroyed because of the direct toxic effect of the chlorine. Others maintain that the introduction of chlorine into water results in the formation of hypochlorous acid—an unstable compound—which breaks up and liberates nascent oxygen and hydrochloric acid, the supposition being that the bacteria are destroyed by the nascent oxygen. . . . Since chlorine compounds can destroy bacteria even when oxygen is not liberated it would seem that those mechanisms that explain the germicidal action of chlorine without hypothesizing the formation of nascent oxygen have a more sound scientific basis.” (Prescott and Horwood 1935)

A 1944 publication by S.L. Chang appeared to put the controversy to rest: “The action of chlorine and chloramine compounds on cysts was attributed to the active chlorine which may oxidize or chlorinate the proteins in the protoplasm. The possibility of action by nascent oxygen liberated by HOCl was indirectly studied, and the evidence strongly indicated that this was unlikely to occur.” (Chang 1944) Since Chang’s publication, nascent oxygen has not been mentioned in professional publications except as a historical curiosity.

In their classic 1954 textbook on water and wastewater engineering, Gordon M. Fair and John C. Geyer addressed the historically curious concept and stated categorically that oxygen did not accomplish disinfection. It was chlorine in its various forms in water that was toxic to bacteria. (Fair and Geyer 1954) Like many a scientific theory that conveniently explained a troubling public relations problem, it took a lot of time to kill the nascent oxygen idea.

References:

  • Chang, S.L. 1944. “Destruction of Micro-Organisms.” Journal AWWA. 36:11 1192-1207.
  • Davies, Edward. 1878. “The Nascent State as Affecting Chemical Action.” The Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions. 8: 485-6.
  • Ellms, Joseph W. 1917. Water Purification. New York City, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill.
  • Fair, Gordon M., and John C. Geyer. 1954. Water Supply and Waste-water Disposal. New York City, N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  • Hooker, Albert D. 1913. Chloride of Lime in Sanitation. New York City, N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons.
  • McGuire, Michael J. The Chlorine Revolution: Water Disinfection and the Fight to Save Lives. Denver:American Water Works Association, 2013.
  • Prescott, Samuel C. and Murray P. Horwood. 1935. Sedgwick’s Principles of Sanitary Science and the Public Health: Rewritten and Enlarged. New York:McMillan.
  • Race, Joseph. 1918. Chlorination of Water. New York City, N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Turneaure, F.E., and H.L. Russell. 1924. Public Water-Supplies: Requirements, Resources, and the Construction of Works. 3rd Edition. New York City, N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Polluted South Platte River

Polluted South Platte River

December 22, 1998: New York Times headline—Observatory: Pollution Runs Through It. “A river is like a highway, flowing through the landscape. Unfortunately, according to a new study, it is also like a car, polluting the air as it rolls along.

 

Scientists from the United States Geological Survey, in a study of the South Platte River in Nebraska and Colorado, determined that the river gives off large amounts of nitrous oxide, a gas that acts as a catalyst in the destruction of ozone in the atmosphere.

 

Like many rivers, the South Platte is rich in nitrates and ammonium, from agricultural runoff and the discharges from sewage treatment plants.

 

Microbes turn these nitrogen sources into nitrous oxide. The researchers, whose work was published in the Internet edition of Environmental Science and Technology, found that the river in many places was supersaturated in nitrous oxide, with the result that much of it entered the atmosphere.

 

The scientists estimated that the amount of the gas emitted along a 450-mile stretch of the river each year was equivalent to that produced by all the worst sewage treatment plants in the United States.

 

And although they said more studies were needed, they added that if the South Platte is typical, as seems likely, rivers are a major source of man-made nitrous oxide pollution.”

December 21, 1868: Birth of George Warren Fuller

George Warren Fuller, 1903, 35 years old

George Warren Fuller, 1903, 35 years old

December 21, 1868: Birth of George Warren Fuller in Franklin, Massachusetts. George Warren Fuller was, quite simply, the greatest sanitary engineer of his time, and his time was long—lasting from 1895 to 1934.  In truth, we have not seen his like since.  How did he reach the pinnacle of his field?  What early influences led him on his path? There is a biography of Fuller on Wikipedia that I wrote which summarizes his life from a “neutral point of view.” The material below is taken in part from Chapter 7 of The Chlorine Revolution:  Water Disinfection and the Fight To Save Lives. By design, it gives more of a personal flavor to his life.

George Warren Fuller was born in Franklin, Massachusetts on December 21, 1868—ten years after the death of Dr. John Snow and ten years after the birth of Dr. John L. Leal.  He was the son of George Newell Fuller and Harriet Martha Craig. There is not much known about his father who was simply described as a farmer.  His father was born on the Fuller family property in Franklin, Massachusetts on November 22, 1819.

Harriet Martha Craig was born on February 2, 1841, grew up near Leicester, Massachusetts, and attended Mount Holyoke College, but she did not graduate.  Her final year at the institution was 1865.  They were married on November 15, 1866 when he was 46 and she was only 25.  They settled down in the Franklin-Medway area of rural Massachusetts for a quiet life of farming on the ancestral Fuller family property.  They had two children, George W. and Mabel B. who was born in 1876.  We know that George kept in touch with his younger sister in later years.  She married Carl W. DeVoe and moved to Jerome, Idaho. George owned a ranch in Idaho and must have visited her there.

Place names in Massachusetts have changed over the past several hundred years as the land area covering certain towns changed due to the expansion and contraction of town boundaries or as a result of new towns being carved off from old ones.  Towns that figured prominently in Fuller’s history, Dedham, Franklin and West Medway, all describe the same general area, which is about 10-25 miles southwest of Boston.

We know only a little about his early education.  One report observed:

“George Warren Fuller was at the head of his class when he attended the Dedham schools. His scholarship was, of course, a source of great satisfaction to his mother. At sixteen he passed the examination for entrance at MIT but, his father having died a few weeks before, it was thought best for him to have a fourth year in high school….”

After his father’s death on May 3, 1885, his mother moved 2,500 miles away to Claremont, California where she lived until she died in 1915.  George must have felt that he had lost both parents at the same time.  We do not know if he was looking for a stable family life to replace the one he had lost, but we do know that he married when he was only two years out of high school, in 1888.  His first wife, Lucy Hunter was born in October 1869 and died far too young on March 18, 1895. Lucy came from a family who immigrated to America from New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island.  Her father was born about 1830 and listed his occupation as farmer.  Her mother, Sarah, was born about 1845.  The farming family had seven children, three boys and four girls.  They must have moved to Boston from New Brunswick sometime between 1877 and 1880.  The youngest boy, Harry, was born in New Brunswick about 1877. I recently heard from a descendant of Lucy Fuller who was researching her family. According to her second cousin, three times removed, the family was sailing from Northern Ireland to Philadelphia in 1767 when their ship was wrecked off of Nova Scotia. Lucy’s family eventually made it to Boston while many of the other Hunters moved on to Ontario, Canada.

In 1880, the U.S. census showed that her family lived in Boston at 218 Bennington Street, which is now near Boston Logan International Airport and was located near cultivated land in the late 1800s.  The address is about three miles from the MIT campus, as the crow flies.

Lucy was 18 years old and Fuller was 20 years old when they were married.  Fuller was only in his second year at university (1886-1890).  They had one son, Myron E. Fuller who was born in Boston on June 4, 1889. We do not know much about the marriage, but we do know that George W. Fuller was issued a passport on May 2, 1890 for his trip to Germany and his continued studies. There is no record that Lucy or Myron applied for a passport or accompanied Fuller to Germany.  Massachusetts death records listed her cause of death as “enteritis” which was a general term used for diseases caused by the ingestion of pathogens from food or water.  The death records listed her as “married” which meant that her marriage to Fuller was not dissolved prior to her death. There is no evidence that George W. Fuller lived with her and their son after 1889.

From a 1910 census report, it is clear that Myron lived with his father in Summit, New Jersey.  One recorded connection we know of between Myron and his father was mentioned in the preface of Fuller’s 1912 book, Sewage Disposal. Fuller acknowledged Myron (who was 22 years old at the time) for creating the index to the book.  One source showed that Fuller and McClintock employed Myron from 1911 to 1916 and again from 1919 until at least 1922. In 1918, Myron registered for the draft and listed his occupation as civil engineer. The same reference showed Myron working for the City of Philadelphia in the Bureau of Surveys—the same occupation as his great-great-great-great grandfather, Ensign Thomas Fuller.  He lived in Philadelphia with his wife and one child.

While Fuller was in Louisville working on the filtration investigations, he met Caroline L. Goodloe who came from a fine, old Louisville family.  In November 1899, Fuller married her in Louisville. They were both 31 years old when they were married.  In May of 1900, husband and wife went on a trip to Europe—a somewhat delayed honeymoon. Their son, Kemp Goodloe Fuller, was born on March 10, 1901. On November 11, 1903, while living in New York City, their second son, Asa W. Fuller was born.

We know from records published in the annual report of the APHA and other sources that Fuller had his offices in New York City at 220 Broadway for many years beginning in 1899, which was the same address given by Allen Hazen for his offices for a short period of time.

Tragically, Caroline Goodloe Fuller died in June 21, 1907, while George W. Fuller was most heavily engaged in numerous water and sewage disposal projects all over the U.S.  At her death, George W. Fuller was living at 309 West 84th Street in New York City with his wife and their sons.  She was 38 years old.

The 1910 Census form showed that Fuller was living at 160 Boulevard, Summit, New Jersey with Alice C. Goodlow (sic) who was identified as his sister-in-law, Mary L. Goodlow (sic) identified as his mother-in-law and his three sons Myron, Kemp G. and Asa.  George’s in-laws had come up from Louisville to help him raise the boys.  Also listed at the same residence was an interesting guest, Grace F. Thomson, 43, born in China of English ancestry and claiming a trade of metal working.  In addition, there were three servants (two Irish and one Greek) making it a full and busy household.  The census form showed him as widowed, so by 1910 he had not remarried.

We know from several accounts, that George Warren Fuller was, in many ways, a big man.  Physically, he was tall.  An account by a colleague said that he was over six feet tall, but passport application forms that Fuller filled out showed that his height was 5 feet 10 inches. Pictures of him from 1903 until at least 1928 showed that he was, to use a descriptor from the time, stout. One description had him at 285 pounds with a size 18 collar.

His hair was dark brown and, in the style of the day, slicked down and parted in the middle.  As time marched on, he began to gray at the temples and then the gray seemed to take over his thinning head of hair.  He was clean-shaven except for his days in Louisville during the filtration studies, when he sported a bushy mustache.  He had blue eyes that could bore into someone who did not please him and twinkle when he was trying to charm a lady.  The round spectacles that he always wore did not detract from the intensity of his blue eyes.

Commentary: George Warren Fuller Comes to California…in 2012

On April 3 2012, I gave a talk at the California Nevada Section Conference of the American Water Works Association. I teamed up with John Marchand who gave a talk on Dr. John Snow of Broad Street Pump fame. We made a pact to give our talks in costume, which incredibly we both followed through on. Below are links to my talk broken up into three parts (YouTube restrictions). It describes Fuller’s life and the first use of chlorine on the Jersey City water supply in 1908.

Part 1:  http://youtu.be/37WZkp5148w

Part 2:  http://youtu.be/rsicrBvVMc4

Part 3:  http://youtu.be/n6PuOvjjQMI